Scholarly Technical Education Publication Series (STEPS) Vol. 4, 2020

Interactive Courseware Development for Learning the Algebra Competition in the Materials of Learning Mathematics


    Norhasyimah Hamzah, Normah Zakaria, Siti Nur Kamariah Rubani, Arihasnida Ariffin & Siti Syahirah Ahmad Zuhdi, Universiti Tun Huseein Onn Malaysia (UTHM), Johor, Malaysia


The purpose of this study is to design, develop and test the functionality of a learning tool that is more interesting and effective for the subject of Algebraic Expressions in the subject of Mathematics. The developer used an interview instrument to collect data to identify student concerns consisted of three experts which is two (2) Faculty of Technical and Vocational education (FPTV) lecturers, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM) and one (1) from Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Seri Gading. The analysis shows that the three experts agree on the interactive textbook for learning Algebraic expressions in the Form One student mathematics subject to these three multimedia application designs where the experts provide positive feedback in the content design section content, interaction design and interface design. Overall, the development of an interactive textbook for learning Algebraic Expressions in this one (1) Year 2 student mathematics subject is acceptable for the T&L process.


The development and use of multimedia especially in education is not a foreign matter in Malaysia. Therefore, in the context of education, interactive use of multimedia has played an important role in enhancing the teaching and learning process (T&L) in a more effective and quality way. In addition, multimedia technology is said to have a profound impact on communication and education (Ahmad, Aris & Harun, 2005). A variety of teaching aids can be provided for a particular subject to facilitate student's understanding. Interactive concepts in multimedia are said to overcome the constraints inherent in the traditional T&L method where conventional learning environments provide little opportunity for students to actively participate in the learning process in the classroom (Suryadi, 2009).

The application of animated elements in multimedia applications is very important for the purpose of the T&L process compared to other elements. Animation is seen as being able to attract users or students and thus motivate students (Sidi, Junnaini & Malajad, 2005). Therefore, students' lack of understanding in Mathematics subjects needs to be solved by developing a more effective method with ABBM using multimedia software. These Math Concepts are learned at special times and are integrated into all thematic learning activities using fun methods to stimulate students' thinking. Therefore, mastery of Mathematical science is essential to provide a workforce that is compatible with the development and needs of developing a developed nation (Johan, 2008).

Interactive Courseware in Education and Learning

The use of the textbook in education is an effective initiative to create student interest in learning Algebraic expressions in Mathematics subjects during the T&L process in the classroom. The use of textile as e-learning also creates awareness and enhances students' attitude towards the role of educational technology in developing knowledge and educational progress (Akmal, 2008). In addition, the ability of interactive multimedia tools to help students master skills in Science, especially Biology, has received serious attention over the past two decades (Hartshorne & Cypher, 2004). Therefore, to achieve educational goals in Malaysia, a paradigm shift is required in the thinking and use of technology (Noordin, 2011). Efforts need to be made and engagement should be done to the extent that we can afford them and produce something according to our own thinking, without relying on others.

Courseware containing a combination of text, graphics, animations, audio and video is essential to attract students' attention in T&L sessions. The existence of the workforce in the educational environment has shown a new development that is expected to help the education world become more effective through the T&L process (Yusoff & Tanalol, 2005). Computer-based tools can make the educational process a fun and exciting experience while helping students understand a concept quickly and easily.

Courseware is an effective educational medium and the advantage of the media compared to other media is clear. Courseware is able to integrate a variety of media, text, voice, images, graphics and animations in one digital environment. It enables interactivity with students. As with other educational media, textiles are tools, methods and approaches used to make teacher-student communication during the process (T&L) more effective. Thus, the existence of these tools can also reduce the burden on teachers in the provision of teaching aids (ABBM) and their delivery. In addition, the presence of the teacher in the learning process is timely and the benefits can be felt while also creating students' enjoyment of learning in the classroom.

Mathematics Curriculum Approaches in Education

Mathematics is often defined as a study or study of structure patterns, changes and spaces or in other words, studies of numbers and diagrams. According to Idris, Abdul and Asmah (2010), Mathematics is a field of knowledge that trains the mind to think systematically and systematically in solving problems and making decisions. Mathematical learning is integrated with Science, Social Sciences, Health and other fields. Additionally, the Math program should allow students to use Math as a tool to explore, discover new discoveries of 'Discovery' and solve problems.

The mathematical development of pupils begins with the student's experience of concrete objects or objects containing quantities and qualities of objects such as different colors, sizes and shapes and manipulating the numbers around them. According to Hergenhahn and Olson (2009), every normal child is able to understand Mathematics well when their activities and methods are given their attention. Mathematics is an example of logical thinking that shapes the concept of children's numbers that requires experience, social interaction, time, language and understanding of student thinking (Eat, 2011).

Algebraic Expressions in Mathematics

According to Sangit (2007), Algebra is part of the Mathematics field where it is involved in the areas of relatedness and function. In Malaysia, topics related to the field of Algebra have been studied informally since elementary school. The continuity of this field of Algebra was formally studied at the high school level. He added that it is common knowledge that the field of Algebra is the connection between letters in a single equation or expression.

In addition, Sangit (2007) argues that students need to change their thinking in the area of Algebra because so far students have only studied Maths related to arithmetic. However, when students are in high school, the field of Algebra is part of the topic in Mathematics. According to Martínez et al., (2002), although Algebraic thinking and some important Algebraic concepts were first learned in early grades, there are still many students who find Algebra difficult to understand.

Research Objective

The objectives of this study are as follows:

  1. Designing interactive courseware for learning Algebraic Expressions in Form One student mathematics subjects.
  2. Developing interactive courseware for learning Algebraic Expressions in Form One student mathematics subjects.
  3. Evaluating the usefulness of learning Algebra Expression courseware by experts.

Methodology of the Study

In the process of developing a learning courseware based on the teaching design model, Heinich's (2002) teaching design model was selected as a guide for developing this courseware. ASSURE models are also known as classroom-oriented models. This model was developed to create effective and efficient T&L activities, especially in teaching and media-based teaching activities. There are six (6) elements in the ASSURE Model like the diagram below to develop this learning courseware as a progressive process.

Figure 1: ASSURE Model of Heinich (2002)

Student Analyze Phase

The analysis phase is to analyze all existing student characteristics such as general description of age, level, background and so on. By knowing these features, developers can become the basis for the selection of media and materials later. This process should examine student records and interact with students directly. Level-specific competencies are related to students' existing knowledge and skills in the subject and student content. This information is obtained from interviews with teachers as well as student interactions where this model is a good process for understanding the characteristics of the students. It makes it easier for developers to create instructional materials based on the students' wants and criteria, by interacting with students, more about the student's problems.

State the Objective Phase

Well-organized teaching objectives can lead teachers to achieve the desired result. The objectives provided should be realistic and in line with the student's level of ability. Instead, they need to be structured from simple to difficult such as for example in Mathematics, which requires a lot of practice and a high level of focus from students. As the education age is advanced, learning in the form of courseware development facilitates students to better understand and engage students, indirectly the objective of measuring measurable student engagement and the state or diversity and level of student achievement facilitates the achievement of objective objectives.

Material Use and Resource Source Phase

In this phase developers should set up the use of materials and media used in the process of developing interactive courseware for learning Algebraic Expressions in Form One student mathematics subjects. The source of media use and materials in teaching is important as it determines the effectiveness of the teaching and learning process of T&L. When implementing the T&L strategy, developers need to provide appropriate teaching media to help students understand the content of the lesson to attract students to focus more on the T&L process.

Student Engagement Phase in Learning

The fifth phase requires student involvement in learning. Student involvement in the T&L process is a priority and is always encouraged by educators. In designing this learning courseware page, students are involved in contributing to the environment that allows students to control their learning. For example, students are given the freedom to choose what multimedia elements they want to incorporate into their learning environment. Next, students are provided with interactive courseware whose variables can be controlled by the student. In addition, observation sessions were held, discussions and comments for feedback on the software being developed. This is important to ensure that the application is appropriate, effective and engaging.

Evaluation and Modification Phase

The evaluation and revision phase is the final step in the ASSURE model. Completed software is evaluated to get feedback from the user and the teacher and to ensure its usefulness through interviews. This phase is intended to determine if there are any weaknesses and defects in the software to be immediately repaired to meet the needs of the user.


Developers have been testing and evaluating the development of interactive courseware for learning algebraic expressions in their Form One student mathematics subjects. As a result, developers conduct testing and evaluation through expert verification. Through the testing and evaluation process, developers are able to measure product feasibility of product content design, product interaction design and interface design. Experts have been given expert reviews to review the product development functionality that developers have developed.

Expert Testing for Content Design

This section is based on the content of the content contained in the interactive courseware for learning algebraic expressions in the Form One student mathematics curriculum developed. There are six question items asked by experts in this section. Through analysis, the percentage of each question indicates that all experts agree on the whole question. The conclusion that can be drawn is that the experts provide positive feedback on the questions in the courseware content section.

Table 1: Table of Contents Design Table

Expert Testing on Interaction Design

This section is based on the interaction design aspects of the interactive courseware for learning algebraic expressions in the Form One student mathematics curriculum developed. There are questions asked by experts in this section. From the analysis that can be made, all the questions indicate the positive aspects of this interaction design. All experts agree that this interactive learning courseware works well and can provide convenience to users. However, one of the experts disagreed for the exit button to work properly.

Table 2: Evaluation of Interaction Design

Expert Testing on Interface Design

This section is based on the multimedia element interface design features found in the interactive courseware for learning algebraic expressions in the Form One student mathematics curriculum developed. There are six question items asked by experts in this section. Through analysis, the percentage of each question indicates that all experts agree on the whole question. The conclusion that can be drawn is that the experts are responding positively to the questions found in the courseware interface design section. However, one of the experts disagreed that this interactive learning courseware could attract users.

Table 3: Evaluation of Interface Design Table

Expert Confirmation

Developers have developed expert endorsements for interactive courseware for learning algebraic expressions in their Form One student mathematics through a specialist verification form released by the university. The expert information, insights and reviews provided on this product are suitable for the purpose of the university teaching and learning process.

Next, the expert endorsement consisting of one of the school's teachers is a teacher in Mathematics and two lecturers from the Creative Multimedia field to test and evaluate the feasibility of this product once it has been developed. Developers receive feedback, insights and reviews from experts on the interactive courseware functionality for learning algebraic expressions in Form One (1) student mathematics subjects such as Table One that can help make this product better and meet the requirements.

Table 4: Expert Reviews and Feedback


Based on the findings and analysis of the data obtained, the discussion covers the questions developed by the developer, including the development of interactive courseware design for learning Algebraic expressions in the Form One student mathematics subject and includes expert verification after testing and evaluating the functionality content design, interface design and interaction design.

As a result of the analysis performed on the experts, the three experts agree that content design is in good standing throughout the process of communicating the objectives and the layout of the content can contribute towards achieving that objective. This is supported by the statement of Mahmud, Ismail and Hassan (2007) that the development of a good software should include several features including objective content as well as neatly organized information on display. In addition, all experts agree on content design when content meets the syllabus for the Math subject for Algebraic Expression topics. Also, the content on each display is also easy to understand. Furthermore, all experts agree on the use of graphics, animations, and audio for this courseware. Students' ability and understanding of a theory and practice is faster and clearer with the presence of multimedia elements that help to give a clear and engaging picture (Mayer, 2009). In addition, to test the students' comprehension a number of objective quiz questions were developed by the developer for student response.

Additionally, based on the results of the analysis, all experts agree on the use of button/icon function items that are easy to identify and that there are several buttons that use words to make it easier for the user to determine the user's control over communicating or interacting with the computer. The results of this analysis are also supported by the findings of Mahmud, Ismail and Hassan (2007) that the interaction design of a good software should emphasize several things such as the design of the built-in button that should be consistent throughout the software used and easy to identify by the user - easily identifiable by the user. In addition, to achieve the right information on each designed screen, it gives the user control over the original display after being on the other screen and is flexible for the user when they want to exit the display whenever they want, as well as contribute to the design good interaction. The results of this data analysis emphasize that aspects of interaction design are also supported by the findings of Ali, Eh Phon and Che Lah (2007) that button/icon requirements are important and that each display should have a similar and consistent button to the next view. This button makes it easy for users to move from one view to another by selecting the desired menu.

Based on the discussion on interface design, most experts have responded positively to the aspects of interface design contained in the development of this interactive learning video. The findings of this analysis are also supported by the statement of Tasir, Harun and Alip (2008), that the production of good interface design should be supported by appropriate text, graphics, animation, audio and color elements. Next, the positioning of the elements is based on the description of a user's eye movement, which is that a user's eye movement starts at the left side of the computer screen, then the user goes to the left-hand side of the computer screen, and then horizontally to the right side of the computer screen.


This study aims to develop an interactive teaching courseware for Mathematics for the topic of Algebraic Expressions as an additional learning resource for Form One students. In addition, a more detailed Algebraic Expression process can be explained to students through courseware. As such, the development of this interactive learning courseware is also a learning alternative for student reference and incentives for independent learning beyond T&L time.


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