Mongolia

Genghis Khan Equestrian Statue

member-since-2006

Partner Ministry/Organization Ministry of Labor and Social Protection
Recent Programs Held
2018: Capacity Building Program on APACC Criteria and Process of Accreditation and Certification (Mar 29)

2017: In-Country Program on Administration and Management of TVET Institutions (Apr 24-28)

2013: Special In-Country Program on Champion Leaders Development Program for TVET Skills for Poverty Alleviation at the Mongolian-Korean Polytechnic College (Nov 4-8)

2012: In-Country Program on Total Quality Management in TVET (Sep 7-8)
Ambassador N/A
Address of Embassy/Consulate in Manila N/A

Mongolia Flag

Official Name Mongolia
Land Area 1,566,000 km2 (605,000 sq mi) (18th)
Population 3,081,677 (134th)
Capital Ulaanbaatar (pop. 1,372,000)
Largest Cities Darkhan (pop. 150, 379)
Erdenet (pop. 91,738)
Choilabsan (pop. 38,537)
Moron (pop. 35,789)
Country Borders Russia (North), China (South, East, West)
Religion(s) Buddhism, Irreligion, Islam, Shamanism
Major Languages Mongolian
Demonym Mongolians
National Holidays 26 November 1924 (establishment of the Mongolian People’s republic)
No. of years of Primary Education 6
Major Universities National University of Mongolia; Mongolian University of Science and Technology; Mongolian University of Life Science; Khovd University; Mongolian Stata University of education.
Primary School Enrollment (Total) 97.88%(2017, UNESCO)
Tertiary School Enrollment (Total) 64.84%(2017, UNESCO)
Ministry/ Ministries Supervising Education Ministry of Education, Culture and Science
Education as % of GDP 5.18% (Global Economics.com)
Agency Handling TVET Ministry of Education before 2012, Culture and Science and Ministry of Labour and Social Protection after 2012 (UNEVOC)
TVET System of Mongolia TVET schools were administered by the Ministry of Education until 2012 and are now under the Ministry of Labor. There are four types of institutions which offer TVET programs: (a) vocational training and production centres (VTPC) (40 of them); (b) independent (technical) colleges (9); (c) branches of higher education institutes (7); and (c) branches of universities (15). VTPC and technical colleges enroll students who graduated from 9th grade of secondary schooling (completion of basic education). They are expected to study two and a half years and to receive both a vocational education certificate and a secondary education completion certificate. Vocational programs operating within branches of universities and institutes enroll only graduates of 12th grade of secondary schooling (high school graduates). They are expected to study only one year to receive a vocational education or occupational certificate or 2-3 years for a vocational education diploma. There are non-formal vocational training programs offered called short-term (up to three months) vocational skills training. They are administered by the Ministry of Labor.

After completion of training, the participants receive a vocational/skills or competency certificate. In addition, on-the-job training is designed for new employees or to enhance the skills of the industry workforce. They are administered directly by employers.


Figure 1: Structure of the Mongolian Education Syste,. Note. Figure from Dr. Saha Meyanathan. (April, 2016). Technical and Vocational Education and Training Financing in Mongolia. Vocational Education and Training Policy Coordination Department (VETPCD) Retrived May 16, 2019 form: http://mcut.mn/wp-content/uploads/2016/06/TVET-Financing-in-Mongolia-ENG.pdf

As of 2016, the total number of TVET institutions in Mongolia had reached 81. Private sector TVET colleges have increased in numbers since the mining boom started in 2006. There are about 32 private TVET institutions (compared to 49 public institutions) that operate on tuition fee revenues and variable cost subsidies from the state. (These tend to receive erratic support from bilateral partners and the Ministry of Population Development and Social Welfare (MoPDSW), and are specialized by sectors with courses of varying duration and quality.) Given that the outcomes at the TVET schools are still to meet the industry standards and needed competencies, the larger mining and construction companies have started building their own training facilities, and in some cases serving the needs of related companies in their sectors. The number of students attending the TVET streams has also increased recently, since the stipends for both private and public students were introduced. In terms of courses, the construction and transportation sector related courses are the most sought after, followed by hospitality, plumbing and sewing ( See Table 1).

Table.1 TVET Students by discipline


Note. Figure from Dr. Saha Meyanathan. (April, 2016). Technical and Vocational Education and Training Financing in Mongolia. Vocational Education and Training Policy Coordination Department (VETPCD) Retrived May 16, 2019 form: http://mcut.mn/wp-content/uploads/2016/06/TVET-Financing-in-Mongolia-ENG.pdf
Qualification Framework The first stream, formal vocational education and training, constitutes a part of Mongolia’s overall education system and, as such, falls under the responsibility of the MECS. The duration of programs in this stream is two years and over. This stream includes 63 TVET centers or institutions across Mongolia, including at least one in every aimag(province). Of these institutions, 41 are public and 22 are private, including four that are funded by foreign investment (two Japanese, one from the Republic of Korea, and one funded by a missionary group but which does not provide any religious education). These institutions have a total of 2,300 staff including managers. Approximately 10,000 students enroll, and 10,000 students graduate each year. Of the 63 institutions, 45 are schools where students may come from tertiary education or after having completed secondary school, while the rest are part of the secondary school system, following basic education, as shown in figure.2 below.


Figure 2: Mongolia’s Formal Education System. Note. Figure from ILO Regional Skills Programme. (March 08, 2016). Compilation of assessment studies on technical vocational education and training (TVET): Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Mongolia, the Philippines, Thailand and Viet Nam. International Labour Organization. Retrived May 16, 2019 form: https://www.ilo.org/asia/publications/WCMS_458131/lang--en/index.htm

The second stream consists of the short-term skills training centers, which are not a part of the formal education system, and are the responsibility of the Labour and Social Welfare Office (LSWO) of the MSWL. Some of these centers are funded under the Employment Promotion Fund. The training provided by these vocational training centers (VTCs) is short term (less than a year), mainly in services and in industry. The short program duration is partly due to cost considerations, and because unemployed people want short programs and to be employed as soon as possible.

This stream includes over 1,500 skills development and VTCs officially registered with the LSWO and its local branches. These cover a wide range of skills and professions, and constitute a large spectrum in terms of quality of training provided, and resources available. Some are well-established, while others are less so. Unlike the formal vocational education institutions, VTCs in this stream have not received significant technical assistance (software, hardware, or capacity building) from donors in recent years.

Structure and Governance

Training institutions providing vocational education are those belonging to the two streams of the TVET system, and the figure.3 illustrates the linkages between these institutions and their places within Mongolia’s TVET system.

Figure 3: Organizational structure and linkages between TVET agencies and institutions. Note. Figure from ILO Regional Skills Programme. (March 08, 2016). Compilation of assessment studies on technical vocational education and training (TVET): Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Mongolia, the Philippines, Thailand and Viet Nam. International Labour Organization. Retrived May 16, 2019 form: https://www.ilo.org/asia/publications/WCMS_458131/lang--en/index.htm
Levels of NVQS The degree or certification system exists in the TVET system:

Table.2 Types of Vocational education and graduation documents


Note: Data from Korean-World Bank Partnership Facility. (2016). Mongolia: Education System Overview. The World Bank. Retrieved May 16, 2019 form: http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/597291508755011466/pdf/120591-WP-P150980-PUBLIC-Mongolia-NQF-summary.pdf
TVET Financing The state TVET sector financing in Mongolia has main 4 sources: (a) government (b) foreign worker levy (private sector) (c) funding from international development partners and (d) funding from large private corporations. Figure.4 below details the recent trends in terms of TVET financing sources of the state schools. Government sources and the TVET Promotion Fund provide the largest components of the sources of funding. Other sources are from a number of development partners and the large corporations. In total, for the year 2016, all sources are expected to invest about $40 million into the sector (Figure.4).


Figure 4: Total Funding of Mongolian TVET for 2016. Note. Figure from Dr. Saha Meyanathan. (April, 2016). Technical and Vocational Education and Training Financing in Mongolia. Vocational Education and Training Policy Coordination Department (VETPCD) Retrived May 16, 2019 form: http://mcut.mn/wp-content/uploads/2016/06/TVET-Financing-in-Mongolia-ENG.pdf

The Ministry of Finance provides financing to the Ministry of Labor (MoL) to allocate the funding to the TVET institutions. There are 38 public TVET schools that receive funding for operating and capital expenditures from the MoL. For 2016, the MoL allocated a sum of MNT 46.4 billion (USD 23.6 million) in total to 38 public TVET schools. This comprises 46% of the total MoL budget expenditure in 2016.

More than half of the total funding to the public TVET schools are spent on salaries and bonuses of staff. Of the total expected spending (USD 23.6 million) on 38 public TVET schools in 2016, 56% will be spent on wages, salaries, and bonuses for teachers. Seventeen percent spent on electricity, heating, and clean water, sewage, 6% for social insurance contributions, 7% on standard costs such as meals, housing, bedding and medicine, 5% spent on current transfers (pensions etc.), and the rest on office supplies and inventory, travel and guest expenses, furniture and current repair expenses, purchase of other goods and services etc.

Figure.5 MoL expenditure to 38 public TVET schools, by categories and share of the cost, 2016. Note. Figure from Dr. Saha Meyanathan. (April, 2016). Technical and Vocational Education and Training Financing in Mongolia. Vocational Education and Training Policy Coordination Department (VETPCD) Retrieved May 16, 2019 form: http://mcut.mn/wp-content/uploads/2016/06/TVET-Financing-in-Mongolia-ENG.pdf

REFERENCES:

ILO Regional Skills Programme. (2016). Compilation of assessment studies on technical vocational education and training (TVET): Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Mongolia, the Philippines, Thailand and Viet Nam. International Labour Organization. Retrieved from: https://www.ilo.org/asia/publications/WCMS_458131/lang--en/index.htm
Dr. Saha Meyanathan. (2016). Technical and Vocational Education and Training Financing in Mongolia. Vocational Education and Training Policy Coordination Department (VETPCD). Retrieved from:http://mcut.mn/wp-content/uploads/2016/06/TVET-Financing-in-Mongolia-ENG.pdf
Korean-World Bank Partnership Facility. (2016). Mongolia: Education System Overview. The World Bank. Retrieved May 16, 2019 form: http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/597291508755011466/pdf/120591-WP-P150980-PUBLIC-Mongolia-NQF-summary.pdf
Mongolia: Education and Literacy. (n.d.). UNESCO. Retrieved May 16, 2019 from: http://uis.unesco.org/country/MN

GDP (billions) $11.164 billion (Nominal: 129th, 2015 est.)
GDP Per Capita $3,946 (nominal; 2015)
Currency Mongolian Togrog (MNT) = 100 mongo
Major Exports copper, apparel, livestock, animal products
Major Imports machinery and equipment, fuel, cars, food products
Major Industries construction and construction materials, mining
Major Export Partners China 84%, Switzerland 9% (2015)
Major Import Partners China 39.9%, Russia 28.4%, Japan 6.4%, South Korea 6.2% (2015)
Inflation 5.9%
Population below Poverty Line 21.6%
Gini Coefficient 36.5 (moderately equal)
Competitiveness Rank 102nd (out of 138)
Ease of Doing Business Rank 64th (out of 190)
Employment Rate 91.7% (2016, est.)
Unemployment Rate 8.3% (2016, est.)

Tsakhiagiin ElbegdorjTsakhiagiin Elbegdorj (http://www.europarl.europa.eu)

Type of Government Unitary semi-presidential republic
Head of State Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj (President)
Head of Government Jargaltulgyn Erdenebat (Prime Minister)
Legislating Body/Bodies State Great Khural

mongolsImage from http://toptoursmongolia.com

Time zone UTC + 7:00/8:00
Human Development Index 0.727 (high, 90th out of 180)
Literacy Rate 98.4% (men, 98.2%; women, 98.6%)
% of people with internet access 21.44% (approx. 634,438)
Life Expectancy 68.8 years (Males: 64.7, Females: 73.2)
Drives on the Right
Calling code +966
ISO 3166 code MN
Internet TLD .mn