Thailand

Grand Palace, Bangkok

Partner Ministry/Organization Office of the Vocational Education Commission (OVEC), Thailand International Cooperation Agency (TICA)
Recent Programs Held in the Country
2018: (1) In-Country Program on Developing Generic Skills for Employment Mobility (29 Jan – 2 Feb); (2) English Training for Rajamangala University of Technology – Thanyaburi (RMUTT) Personnel (Part I) (Feb 5-9); (3) English Training for Rajamangala University of Technology – Thanyaburi (RMUTT) Personnel (Part II) (May 7-11); (4) Branding of TVET Programs through Quality and Image Building (Nov 26-30)

2016: (1) In-Country Program on Technopreneurial Skills Development (Nov 14-18); (2) Regional Program on Developing Organizational Excellence among TVET Institutions through Accreditation (Aug 1-5)

2015: In-Country Program on Accreditation and Certification of TVET Institutions (Nov 23-25)

2014: In-Country program on TVET Image Building (Nov 24-28)

2013: (1) Special In-Country Program on Champion Leaders’ Development Program for TVET Skills for Poverty Alleviation (Nov 25-29); (2) Regional Program on Strengthening the Culture of Entrepreneurship in TVET” (Jul 15-19)
Address of Embassy/Consulate in Manila No. 505 Rizal Drive
107 Rada Street, Legaspi Village
Makati City, Philippines

Country Information

thailand flag

Official Name Kingdom of Thailand
Land Area 513,120 km2 (198,120 sq mi) (51st)
Population 67,959,000 (20th)
Capital Bangkok (pop. 5,782,159)
Largest Cities Nonthaburi (pop. 270,609)
Nakhon Ratchasima (pop. 174,332)
Chiang Mai (pop. 174, 235)
Hat Yai (pop.157,467)
Country Borders Myanmar (west, northwest), Malaysia (south), Laos (northeast), Cambodia (southeast)
Religion(s) Theravada Buddhism
Major Languages Thai
Demonym Thai
National Holidays 5 December (Father’s Day/ King Bhumibol’s Birthday)

No. of years of Primary Education 6 years
Major Universities Mahidol University, Chiang Mai University, Chulalongkorn University, King Mongkut's University of Technology, Thonburi, Suranaree University of Technology.
Primary School Enrollment (Total) 99.6% (2017, UNESCO)
Tertiary School Enrollment (Total) 49.289%(2016, UNESCO)
Ministry/ Ministries Supervising Education Ministry of Education
Education as % of GDP 19.12%(2013, The World Bank)
Agency Handling TVET Ministry of Education, Specifically, The Office of the Vocational Education Commission (OVEC) – under the MoE
TVET System of Thailand The mission of TVET in Thailand is to develop skilled and technical human resources and to ensure that Thailand continues to play an important role in the international labour and economic market. TVET programmes are developed in accordance with the National Education Plan (2002-2016) in order to develop human resources to the levels needed by the labour market.


Figure 1: TVET System in Thailand. Note. Chart from Office of Vocational Education Commission (OVEC). (October, 2015). World TVET Database Thailand. UNEVOC. Retrieved May 17, 2019 form: https://unevoc.unesco.org/wtdb/worldtvetdatabase_tha_en.pdf

The vocational training in Thailand is offered in three systems:
  • The normal program (Formal TVET program)
  • dual-vocational Training Program (Formal TVET program)
  • Non-formal progam

According to the statistics of vocational training presented by the Ministry of Education display that there are over 415 colleges run by public sector and 427 vocational schools and colleges run by the private sector all over the country

Formal TVET system

Formal TVET programmes are offered at the secondary education level. Formal TVET programmes at the upper secondary education level are provided in vocational colleges and institutes and last three years. The types of colleges providing formal TVET can be classified as follows: Technical colleges; Vocational colleges; Agricultural and technology colleges; Commercial colleges; Industrial and ship building technology colleges; Fishery colleges; Administration and tourism colleges; Polytechnic colleges; Automotive industry colleges; Golden Jubilee Royal goldsmith colleges; and Arts and crafts colleges.

In addition, there is another important element in vocational and technical training called the dual vocational training system (DVT), which is implemented under the Office of the Vocational Education Commission (OVEC). In this system, vocational institutes have closer cooperation with the private sector in providing education and training. Students learn theoretical knowledge in schools, and gain practical experience in industry. The system was established in the 1990s by the Vocational Department with technical support from the German government. The system covers upper-secondary level to university level.

In the DVT system, the Bureau of Cooperation under the OVEC takes the lead in cooperating with enterprises and vocational institutions to clarify their responsibilities, before officially entering into a public-private partnership by signing a memorandum of understanding (MOU). Normally, the MOU is signed between the OVEC and the private-sector entity, within which the selected implementing vocational institutes are listed. The selection of the implementing institutes is based upon the following criteria:
  1. the characters of the institutes – whether they serve the sector that the enterprises fall under; and
  2. the location of the institutes – whether they are in the same jurisdiction as the enterprise branches.

Currently there are more than 3,000 enterprises involved in the DVT system. Students study for two days at school, and practice at the workplaces at least three or four days a week, with a stipend or salary. After finishing the DVT programme, students earn a certificate, diploma, or degree in accordance with the educational level they have attained.

TVET programmes in Thailand are linked to national, regional and community needs. Students can choose between nine specialisations offered at the colleges. These specialisations are as follows: Trade and industry; Arts and crafts; Home economics; Commerce and business administration; Tourism industry; Agriculture; Fishery; Textile industry; and Information and Communications Technology (ICT).

In the formal TVET system, students are also able to complete short TVET programmes, generally lasting up to 225 hours. These TVET programmes are targeted at those who have completed at least primary education and aim to provide students with vocational skills for higher education or the labour market. Students who take three to five years of short courses are awarded a certificate. Short TVET programmes are also available to students from the general academic education who have selected a vocational or technical course as their major, minor or elective.

TVET programmes at the tertiary education level are offered in tertiary level colleges and universities. TVET programmes are normally provided in two cycles, each lasting two years. However, associate degree programmes lasting two years are also offered in universities and colleges.

Students who have completed a two year post-secondary TVET programme are able to switch to the undergraduate programme and attend the last year. Upon passing the final examination, students are awarded with an undergraduate qualification.

Non-formal and informal TVET systems

Non-formal and adult programmes are provided in a number of settings, including:
  1. occupational development programmes which aim to develop students’ vocational and occupation skills. The programmes emphasise the importance of the development of life skills in order to overcome unemployment and meet community needs. Programmes are organised in: (1) short occupation training programmes for life skill development; (2) skills training for job employment; (3) group learning for students of the same occupation or trade; and (4) occupational development through the application of technology such as Information and Communications Technology (ICT).
  2. Non-formal vocational programmes which involve: (1) short training programmes; (2) group vocational courses; (3) vocational certificate programmes equivalent to lower secondary school; and (4) non-formal occupational certificate programmes.

Informal TVET programmes are organised in a number of ways, for example in community centres and science centres for education.
Qualification Framework TVET programmes are in line with the goals set out in the National Economic and Social Development Plan and the National Education Plan (2002-2016). Specifically, the quality of TVET programmes is monitored by the Quality Assurance and Education Standards Section of the Office of the Vocational Education Commission (OVEC). Based on the Vocational Education Act, and in line with the Ministry of Education’s Announcement on system, criteria, and implementation on educational quality (2010) and related TVET standards set by OVEC and MoE, TVET colleges are encouraged to set their own TVET College Standards according to official regulations. Yearly Self-Assessment Reports (SAR) must be submitted to OVEC in order to help promote the quality of TVET programmes. For implementation, TVET Colleges are expected to be assessed by OVEC at least once every three years (internal quality assessment). For external quality assessment, the Office of the National Education Standards and Quality Assurance (NESQA) is responsible for implementing the assessment once every four years.
Levels of NVQS
Table 1: Level of TVET General Program

Note. Box from Office of Vocational Education Commission (OVEC). (October, 2015). World TVET Database Thailand. UNEVOC. Retrieved May 17, 2019 form: https://unevoc.unesco.org/wtdb/worldtvetdatabase_tha_en.pdf

Table 2 elaborates the information above

Table 2: Specifications of Each Level of the Thai TVET General program


Note. Figure from ILO Regional Skills Programme. (March 08, 2016). Compilation of assessment studies on technical vocational education and training (TVET): Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Mongolia, the Philippines, Thailand and Viet Nam. International Labour Organization. Retrived May 16, 2019 form: https://www.ilo.org/asia/publications/WCMS_458131/lang--en/index.htm
TVET Financing The TVET system in Thailand is mainly financed by the Ministry of Education (MoE). Specifically the Office of the Vocational Education Commission (OVEC) defines the criteria and allocation of the budget and other necessary resources.

In addition, the MOL has also established a national Skills Development Fund, by collecting training levies from enterprises. The training levy is complemented by a tax deduction system to reimburse firms for part of the levy paid when training expenses are incurred to train their staff.

Figure 3: Enrolment at upper-secondary level, by type of programme, 2001–10. Note. Figure from ILO Regional Skills Programme. (March 08, 2016). Compilation of assessment studies on technical vocational education and training (TVET): Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Mongolia, the Philippines, Thailand and Viet Nam. International Labour Organization. Retrived May 16, 2019 form: https://www.ilo.org/asia/publications/WCMS_458131/lang--en/index.htm

Apart from the government budget allocations and student fees, the government has also stipulated a series of incentive policies to encourage the private sector to be involved in, and to contribute to TVET. For instance, a tax policy similar to the Skills Development Fund under the MOL is to encourage private-sector establishments to donate cash or in-kind to vocational institutions, with the reward of 200 per cent deduction of taxes. Other incentives include:
  • assistance from the DSD in providing training for trainers, skills standard testing providers,supervisors, and others, as well as on curriculum and equipment development;
  • consultation service from the DSD on skills development activities; other privileges indicated in the ministerial regulation;
  • exemption on import duty and VAT for tools and machinery brought into the country for training purposes; and
  • deduction on utility charges for electricity and water, up to twice the amount of the training expenses.
References:
  • ILO Regional Skills Programme. (2016). Compilation of assessment studies on technical vocational education and training (TVET): Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Mongolia, the Philippines, Thailand and Viet Nam. International Labour Organization. Retrieved May 16, 2019 from: https://www.ilo.org/asia/publications/WCMS_458131/lang--en/index.htm
  • Office of Vocational Education Commission (OVEC). (2015). World TVET Database: Thailand. UNEVOC. Retrieved May 17, 2019 form: https://unevoc.unesco.org/wtdb/worldtvetdatabase_tha_en.pdf
  • Scott.M. (2018). Vocational Training In Thailand. Vocationaltraininghq. Retrieved May 17, 2019 form:https://www.vocationaltraininghq.com/vocational-training-in-thailand/ Thailand: Education and Literacy. (n.d.). UNESCO. Retrieved May 16, 2019 form: http://uis.unesco.org/en/country/th

baht

GDP (billions) $390.592 billion (Nominal: 28th, 2016 est.)
GDP Per Capita $5,742 (nominal; 2016)
Currency Thai Baht (THB) = 100 satangs
Major Exports Textiles, footwear, fishery products, rice, rubber, jewelry, automobiles, computers and electrical appliances
Major Imports Capital and intermediate goods, raw materials, consumer goods, fuels
Major Industries Automobiles and automotive parts, financial services, electric appliances and components, tourism, cement, auto manufacturing, heavy and light industries, appliances, computers and parts, furniture, plastics, textiles and garments, agricultural processing, beverages, tobacco
Major Export Partners United States 11.2%, China 11.1%, Japan 9.4%, Hong Kong 5.5%, Malaysia 4.8%, Australia 4.6%, Vietnam 4.2%, Singapore 4.1% (2015 est.)
Major Import Partners China 20.3%, Japan 15.4%, United States 6.9%, Malaysia 5.9%, UAE 4.0% (2015 est.)
Foreign Exchange Reserves $181.8 Billion
Inflation 3.02%
Population below Poverty Line 13.15%
Gini Coefficient 48.4% (2015)
Competitiveness Rank 34th
Ease of Doing Business Rank 46th (out of 190)
Employment Rate 99.1% (2016, est.)
Unemployment Rate 0.9% (2016, est.)

crown-princeMaha Vajiralongkorn (Monarch)

Type of Government Unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy (de jure) Military junta (de facto)
Head of State Maha Vajiralongkorn (Monarch)
Head of Government Prayut Chan-Ocha (Prime minister)
Legislating Body/Bodies National Legislative Assembly

thai-peopleImage from http://asiaexpatguides.com

Time zone UTC +7:00
Human Development Index 0.726 (high, 93rdout of 180)
Literacy Rate 96.7% (men, 96.6%; women, 96.7%)
% of people with internet access 39.32% (26,721,620)
Life Expectancy 74.90 years (Males: 71.90, Females: 78.00)
Drives on the Left
Calling code +66
ISO 3166 code TH
Internet TLD .th