Scholarly Technical Education Publication Series (STEPS) Vol. 4, 2020

Initiatives of CPSC Member Countries on Industry Institute Linkages


    Patil, Vijay, PhD
    Seconded Faculty Consultant, Colombo Plan Staff College
    Manila, Philippines


Across the globe, TVET is being positioned as strategic assets in innovation and economic competitiveness, and as problem-solvers for socio-economic issues affecting their countries and therefore there emerge the need for strategic partnerships between TVET institutions/TVET Institution with industries that go beyond the traditional funding of discrete research projects. Therefore, it is implied to have sufficient ground to undertake the study on this important and vital issue in sixteen CPSC member countries. The purpose of this research is to examine and discuss the status of Industry Institute Linkages in the TVET system of the CPSC member countries. The goal of Institution-industry collaborations is to fully capitalize on the potential of both parties while simultaneously satisfying the mission and objectives of each partner. Here, the quantitative and qualitative approaches were deployed to conduct the research by collecting the data from the primary, secondary and tertiary sources through closed ended questionnaires. In order to analyze the qualitative data, the content analyses method is used to analyze the responses.


In the era of globalization and digital technology, competition among industries has become stiff and people look up to TVET Institutions to solve their problems. There is an urgent need to prepare TVET students for jobs in multinational companies, by exposing them to newer technologies and engineering methodologies, in order to respond to the needs of industry and labour markets. The trained workforce being a backbone of the regional economy, is indispensable for enhancing productivity, enterprise competitiveness and sustainability.

These objectives can only be achieved well by bridging the gap between industry and institution/Institution. Therefore, the vision, flair, energy and commitment from everyone engaged in the partnership is required to nurture the spirit of partnership and thereby for building healthy and vital economies and communities. It is thus necessary to focus to explore the current interpretations of industry institute linkages in the sixteen members countries of CPSC (Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Fiji, India, Malaysia, Maldives, Mongolia, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Singapore, Sri Lanka, and Thailand), since it has a great impact on quality of education, employability and regional economy.

With this background in mind, this research has been undertaken to emphasize the inevitable importance of the industry institute interaction as a vital tool to bring the desirable change in the TVET sector in the jurisdiction of CPSC member countries. In this research design the data used is obtained from survey, questionnaire and primary, secondary and tertiary sources including the one obtained through different search engines to draw certain useful and relevant conclusion cum recommendations that may help in policy formulation for enhancing the quality and effectiveness of industry institute interaction.

Statement of the Problem

The linkage between industry and institutions is of great significance for improving degree of relevance of contents and delivery of TVET systems, in the context of the changing global economic scenario in the region. Institution-industry collaborations pair the discovery and dissemination of knowledge such that the knowledge gained can be applied to the creation of goods and services. Properly constructed, these collaborations ultimately endow society with a public good far exceeding the combined contributions of the parties: economic growth, an improved standard of living, an extension of humanity’s intellectual reach. In the broadest sense, the goal of Institution-industry collaborations is to fully capitalize on the potential of both parties while simultaneously satisfying the mission and objectives of each partner. In short, it transforms the role of the research Institution for the 21st century, anchoring it as a vital center of competence to help tackle social challenges and drive economic growth.

However, the present TVET system is still based on all old assumptions and models and therefore needs a radical shift in its design and future strategic goal to cater the present demand of the industry. In today's era of globalization, technological advancement is responsible for many vital changes in the industry and labour market. Thus, TVET graduates need to cope up with this challenge by enhancing their skills and competencies for their survival through systematic efforts.

It is seen that this area of industry institute linkages has not yet received the proper attention, may be due to several factors and thereby very little evidence of the research in this domain is seen. Therefore, to address this important issue, it is necessary to look at the present policies and legal provisions and their impact on the existing TVET program which have the focus on the issue. Similarly, it is equally important to study the composition and structure of curriculum in the member countries that are updated with the intervention of industry using industry institute linkages. As there are many constraints in implementing the successful interaction between industry and academic institutes, it is worth studying these challenges that are encountered in its implementation and then the solutions to resolve these challenges. It is quite possible that in some countries, the industry institute interaction may be successful, but there is always scope to improve such a system further and hence it is necessary to seek the feedback and/or suggestions from the TVET experts.

Therefore, an attempt has been made here in this paper to examine and analyze critically the present status of industry institute linkages in CPSC member countries to come across certain conclusion/s that may help in policy formulation, enhancing employability skills through relevant competencies and creating further the stronger bond between industry and institute.

Objective of the Study

The main objective of the study is to find out the current status of industry institute linkages in TVET sector in CPSC member countries and to determine the various avenues such as new innovative policies, integrated curriculum, dual training model etc. to offer some recommendations based on the certain conclusions drawn through analysis of its present status. These findings may be further used by the competent authority of the respective country, for suggesting the necessary reforms to enhance the industry institute linkages in the area and to correct or modify the relevant regulation, if required.

Research Questions

The following are the research questions formulated for this study.

  1. What are the present policies and legal provisions related to industry institute linkages?
  2. What are the TVET programs focusing on the strong industry institute linkages?
  3. How is the composition and structure of curriculum updated with the intervention of industry using industry institute linkages platform?
  4. What are the major challenges to enhance industry institute linkages?
  5. What are the suggestions would you like to give to strengthen the industry institute linkages in your country?

Review of Related Literature

Since the role of TVET is changing significantly to address the needs of emerging industries, the training system needs to address the training needs of these emerging industries. The present and emerging scenario of partnership linkage observed in the CPSC member countries has been discussed below.


In recent years, the Government of Bangladesh has initiated a number of measures to introduce more PPP projects across sectors. NGOs such as the Underprivileged Children’s Educational Programs have developed strong linkages with industry. Another example of private sector-facilitated TVET is a garment workers’ education program established by the Bangladesh Garment Manufacturers and Exporters Association, UNICEF, and the International Labour Organization (ILO) that provides basic and vocational education to children who were former child labourers in the garment industry. Its main function is to “increase the efficiency, productivity and product value of the industry.” (ADB, 2017). The following three summaries highlight examples of PPPs in TVET are cited below:

The Chittagong Skills Development Centre: The Chittagong Skills Development Centre (CSDC) is the first industry-led, non-profit skills training centre which strives to strategically develop the country’s workforce by catering to information and communication technology, manufacturing, and services sectors’ present and future skills needs. CSDC seeks to grow the skilled labour pool by providing high-quality, cost-effective, value-added skills training to its corporate members and other private companies. (Tansen, n.d)

The Centre of Excellence for Leather Skill. (COEL): Recognizing the enormous demand for skilled workers, the Centre of Excellence for Leather Skill (COEL) was established to serve as a one-point resource centre as well as a service provider to develop, support, and strengthen workforce development in the leather sector. COEL’s main source of funding comes from the services it offers to the industry and to the labour market.

The Centre of Excellence for Ready-Made Garments. (CERG): A centre of excellence for the ready-made garments sector has been set with a grant received from the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency and a contribution from the global retail brand H&M to work with trade bodies, such as the Bangladesh Garment Manufacturers and Exporters Association and the Bangladesh Knitwear Manufacturers and Exporters Association, to address skills development issues. Initially, the centre will work with an H&M suppliers’ group of around 250 suppliers and may eventually scale up its operation.


The TVET landscape has historically been diverse and complicated, with multiple agencies such as the Directorate General of Employment and Training, Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD), Ministry of Rural Development, and nearly 17 other ministries engaged in education, vocational training, technical training, and skills development. The launch of the National Skill Development Policy in 2009 led to the formation of the National Skill Development Corporation (NSDC) in 2009, the National Skill Development Agency (NSDA) in 2013, and the Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship in 2014. The cumulative capacity of skills development, through all government programs, is about 10 million people per year against a target of 500 million by 2022 (Planning Commission, 2011). The MHRD has brought a revised scheme of the vocationalization of Higher Secondary Education in 2011 which has greater provisions for PPP partnerships and the involvement of industry. The present ADB support for strengthening skills development efforts in the states of Meghalaya, Kerala, and Odisha and have elements of green skills development. ADB technical assistance to NSDA helps to focus the National Skills Qualifications Framework (NSQF) and to build in components of green standards. ADB technical assistance to NSDC helps sector skill councils to develop green skills standards. (Maclean, et al, 2017)

For vocational courses, industry representatives were involved in curriculum development at a national level. Provision was made to involve experts from local industry as a guest faculty to conduct practical classes. Some locations do not have the industries in their area and in such cases a novel concept of Production cum Training Centres was introduced. It also varied with the nature of vocational course, e.g. for an x-ray technician’s course, association with a hospital or nursing home is naturally imperative. The conferences are conducted at Pandit Sundarlal Sharma Central Institute of Vocational Education (PSSCIVE), National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) under the industry institute linkage initiative. Apex industry associations such as the Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FICCI), Associated Chambers of Commerce and Industry (ASSOCHAM) and Confederation of Indian Industry (CII) have been involved to a greater extent in the implementation of vocational education programmes and imparting of skills. The introduction of modular training and multi-skilling, the introduction of competency-based certification for workers without formal training are few initiatives undertaken by the government for the improvement of effectiveness, efficiency and relevance of training. The best example of this industry linkage is a food processing vocational course in Gujarat in collaboration with the All India Food Processors’ Association. Some other initiatives providing direct employment include need-based and tailor-made programs such as a course on insurance with the Life Insurance Company (LIC) of India and a course for Indian Railways. TVS Motor Co. Ltd. is linking up with NSDC to create a trained workforce pool, to meet the challenge in the auto and auto ancillary segment. Recently, a leading German Automobile manufacturer, Volkswagen, started an apprenticeship programme in India based on the dual system of vocational education and training in Germany. Australia is also collaborating with India in various skill development initiatives to share expertise and experiences which is being facilitated through the new bilateral Australia India Education Links website. The website is an information portal which supports education and training collaborations between Australian and Indian education and training institutions, business and industry. The UK India Education and Research Initiative aims to work with a range of different skills and training bodies to enable the participation and facilitation of skill development requirements in both these countries. The New Zealand Open Polytechnic and National Institute of Open Schooling have also signed an agreement for skill development through distance learning. An India-New Zealand Education Council has been constituted to draw up a framework and devise mechanisms of co-operation and set the agenda for improving educational relations between the two countries. NCERT, has executed a 20-month diploma course in English and English Language Teaching under an exchange program with Afghanistan for their youth in 2010-11. (Agrawal, 2013)

The National Apprenticeship Training Scheme, provides opportunities for practical training to freshly pass-on graduates in industries and helps in building a steady pool of talent, which is industry ready; to meet the Human Resources needs of an organisation, at an optimum cost. There is a plan to augment its gross enrolment ratio from the current 20% to 30% in the next five years; to support the requirement of the industry for more than 250 million additional skilled manpower by 2025; to become a stronger hub for attracting global learners from across the world and efforts to move up on the global ranking of universities—these are just a few goalposts that offer the universities an opportunity to reconsider the potential key enablers for success. (Ganesh, 2016)


In Malaysia, its economic development is attributed to many innovative models and good practices being followed in building the effective industry-institution linkages. The basic objective of Malaysia training policy, as established in the Second Outline Perspective Plan, 1990-2000 is to create a strong basis for education and training in order to prepare the economy for global competition. There are few initiatives adopted under the Plan that cover the industrial attachment of trainers and the sharing of public/private sector facilities and instructors, especially through the skill development centres set up in various States. One example is the Penang skill Development Centre for the electronics industry, which is based on a partnership between the State, private enterprise and institution. The centre was established by multinational enterprises and the Penang State Government and is managed as a business by a management council composed of public and private sector representatives. The State Government provides financial incentives, industry shares resources and expertise, and the SMEs make a commitment to transform their technology and operations. (Kulanthaivel, 2016)

Another example is implementation of dual training systems w.e.f.2005, to meet the new demands on the skilled workforce, namely for knowledge-workers or ‘k-workers’. In this scheme, the trainee or worker will spend 70-80% of their time at the workplace and another 20-30% in a training institution to learn theoretical foundations. The training would be for a period of four semesters. There are two implementation approaches. The first one is accomplished through a day-release approach, where the trainee/worker spends 3-4 days per week at the workplace and 1-2 days at the training institution. The other approach is a block approach whereby a trainee/worker spends 3-4 months at the workplace and 1-2 months at a training institution. The employers give trainees/workers monthly allowance. On the other hand, employers are given reimbursements from the HRD fund or tax incentive. After completion of four “semester” programme, apprentices are awarded the NDTS k-Worker Certificate.


The Kathmandu Metropolitan City pioneered private sector involvement in the municipal sector with the Private Sector Participation Program as far back as 1999-2000 for institutional strengthening of the city. Several projects or ventures were identified for implementation, such as the Gongabu bus park, construction of footbridges at different locations, and operation and management of Dharahara and its surroundings. The Council for Technical Education and Vocational Training (CTEVT) and the Federation of Nepalese Chambers of Commerce and Industry have established a PPP to develop nine “Prashikshan Kendras” (trade schools). These schools provide training to develop employment-oriented skills. In its 2011 White Paper on Public–Private Partnership, the National Planning Commission introduces three main models of PPPs: revenue-based, availability-based, and hybrids. Eligible sectors are any infrastructure or services sector for which the government has responsibility, such as physical infrastructure and social services, as well as the facility and service needs of the government. (ADB, 2017)

Under the description as service contract, support to community-based early childhood development centres provided under Basic and Primary Education Program II, outsourcing the delivery of teacher training to non-state entities and providing the training of trainers from private training institutes by CTEVT.

Another initiative under Demand-side financing, in which the government pays either the private user or the private provider an amount for delivering a public service and the examples includes Manmohan Memorial Polytechnic, Madan Ashrit Memorial Technical School, Tansen Nursing School, Palpa and Bharatpur School of Health Science. First, being currently operated by Manmohan Memorial Foundation in a tri-party agreement with the governments of Nepal and India and CTEVT. The Government of India provides support for buildings, equipment, and workshop facilities, while the Government of Nepal provides grants and student fees for recurrent and operational expenditures. In second, the government provides grants with contributions from the community for building construction, equipment support, and furniture. Third one i.e. Tansen Nursing School, Palpa is being run under a memorandum of understanding between CTEVT and United Mission, and Tansen Hospital whereas fourth (Bharatpur School of Health Science) is run by CTEVT as an “ophthalmic project” in collaboration with the Bharatpur Eye Hospital and managed by Lions Club district chapter. (ADB, 2017)


In Pakistan, Institute Management Committee (IMC) and District Board of Management (DBoM) are responsible for the quality in TVET and play an important role in effective management of the institute(s) through active involvement of the industry. The generic roles and responsibilities of the committee(s) related to industry institute linkages are to identify local employment opportunities, facilitating enterprise based training (on-the-job, off-the-job & apprenticeship training) and placements of pass outs, organizing seminars, workshops and exhibitions, facilitate career guidance and counselling, promote public private joint ventures for income generation and enhancement of training quality. It is observed that identifying the appropriate enterprise, active industry-institute engagement and facilitating internships, on the job training and even direct employment leads to attraction of students and thus increases enrolment. The VTIW buffer zone, Karachi is the best example of industry institute linkages.

The major responsibility of the Committee is to engage those enterprises/industry stakeholders that can add the most value and to consult other stakeholders to confirm the outcomes of initial consultations, test ideas and gather additional information. The techniques used for this are direct contact, such as interviews and focus groups, or indirect contact, such as questionnaires, surveys and literature reviews.

Potential partnerships have been developed through Industrial enterprises, Sector Skills Councils (SSC), Chamber of Commerce & Industries (CCI), Clusters & Association, Employers/Organizations (services sector). Industry Exposure Visits for learners and regular industrial attachment of teaching staff with relevant industry are the prominent activities covered under industry institute linkages. (Baig, 2018)


Don Bosco Mondo is focused on providing training to underprivileged youths, many of whom do not have good basic education. The Don Bosco Technical Institute in the Philippines forms partnerships with a number of Training involves a curriculum adapted to the needs of partner companies. With this model, the school can guarantee competencies that meet employer standards, which is why the Institute has a 98% employment rate for graduates. The German Auto Company Porsche is one of the institute’s stakeholders through the Porsche Training and Recruitment Center Asia (PTRCA). PTRCA offers students full training scholarships and jobs at Porsche dealerships in the Middle East upon completion of the training. (Veal, n.d.)


The success story of Singapore is based on the managing partnership through an effective governance structure. These governance structures must include ground rules, so that the diverse individuals and organizations working together towards shared goals have a way to reach agreement on difficult issues. (Kulanthaivel, 2016).

Singapore: The Teaching Factory Concept: Teaching Factory Concept, a hallmark of Singapore, which facilitates effective learning in the implementation of broad-based curricula in the first two years and specialist studies in the final year. It is a concept, which adopts a practice, and application-oriented training approach that combines the learning and working environment from which realistic and relevant learning experiences arise.

The Practice and Application-Oriented Approach: In the Nanyang Polytechnic (NYP) Singapore, final year students in the School of Engineering (SEG) undertake industrial project work aimed at providing engineering and design solutions for the industry. The close collaboration with the industry has made possible opportunities for SEG staff and students to work on real-life projects within time and budget constraints, while observing industry standards. A multi-disciplinary team of engineers and final year students on full-time project assignments undertakes these industrial projects. The real-life experiences, which the students will draw from the practice-oriented course, will help them to relate closely to the occupational aspects of their studies and this will help to bridge the gap between industrial needs and training. (Nanyang Polytechnic, 2009)

Sri Lanka

Nearly 61% of the population is below 34 years of age, and the dependency ratio is approximately 61%, posing a big demographic opportunity for the country. (Maclean et-al, 2017). In the 1990s, the plantations were offered to the private sector on management contracts before subsequently migrating to become fully privatized entities except for a few state managed plantations. The telecoms were privatized in the early 1990s. There were several other state manufacturing and servicing entities such as the Ceylon Steel Corporation, the Sri Lanka Insurance Corporation, and the National Insurance Corporation that were privatized in the 1990s.Thereafter, several power plants were established by private sector operatives. During 1993-2009, the country attracted about Ä 3.3 billion US dollar of private investment in infrastructure projects, mostly in telecommunication but also some in electricity and one in the ports sector.

Another, such example of this change is provided by the Mahindra Chinthana which has the vision that states that it will “restructure the education and knowledge systems suitably, so that Sri.Lanka becomes a key hub for knowledge and learning in the world.” Representatives of all the business sectors reported that their engagement with TVET is low. Fifty-six percent of respondents from the energy sector and 40% of respondents from the hospitality sector indicated that they provided on-the-job training, whereas overall engagement with TVET remained weak. Among other important initiatives by the Government of Sri Lanka is allowing the higher education sector to private investment and delivery of services.

Though there is no significant example seen in the TVET sector so far, the training through apprenticeship provided, has a long history in Sri Lanka and still functions effectively. Three types of apprenticeship programs exist:

Sandwich pattern: (year 1: 6 months of institutional training followed by 6 months of on-the-job training; years 2 and 3: 3 months of institutional training and 9 months of on-the-job training);

Apprenticeship with short-term prevocational training: (2 months of institutional training followed by variable length on-the-job training of up to 3 years depending on the trade); about 80% of apprentices follow this pattern; and

Apprenticeship with long-term training (termed dual apprenticeship): consisting of 1 year of full-time institutional training followed by 1 year of on-the-job training. NAITA also arranges in-plant training of up to 6 months for other tertiary institutions

Research Methodology

The questionnaire consisting of two parts (profile of the respondent and specific responses on IIL) and containing open-ended questions has been circulated to the concerned official of the sixteen member countries to get the answers of the research questions along with their suggestions, if any, to enhance the employability in the region. However, only seven respondents have responded and thus the response rate is around 44 %. Therefore, the other supplementary data has been obtained from the systematic literature review. These responses have been analyzed by the researcher to come to certain findings and conclusions.


Present Policies and Legal Provisions Related to Industry Institute Linkages

The Analysis of Responses from Member Countries was Carried out and has Been Presented in Following Table No. 1

Table 1: Survey Result On Policies And Legal Provisions Related To Iil.

The above result and data show that though there are some or the other legal framework to govern TVET education, there is no exclusive policy providing guidelines on creating and strengthening industry institute linkages, either a macro or at micro level. This emphasizes the need of such exclusive policy incorporating all relevant criteria to have a significant positive impact on a country's economy.

TVET Programs Focusing Strong Industry Institute Linkages

Table 2: Survey result on TVET Programs focusing strong IIL.

The above result and data show that more than 60% CPSC member countries are working towards industry-institute collaboration through relevant TVET programs and thus contribute to produce the skilled workforce.

Composition and Structure of Curricula Updated with Intervention of Iil

TVET education is a tri-polar process (teacher, student and curriculum) of which the curriculum is that pole which forms the central point of the educational process as both teaching and learning only take place through the curriculum. Thus, TVET can be vibrant only if it has a robust curriculum, developed on the basis of present industry needs. Therefore, it is essential to understand the composition of the curriculum and the involvement of industry in its design and implementation.

It is observed that most of the CPSC member countries are following the DACUM system to design their curriculum and involve the industries in its design, review and implementation by various ways. These countries have established different entities like industry advisory committees, sectoral skill committees and skill development authorities to achieve this goal. It is also noticed that Competency Based Training & Assessment is nowadays becoming a popular system in these countries. The survey findings are presented in Table 3.

Table 3: Survey result on composition & structure of curriculum related to IIL.

The above result and data show that more than 60% CPSC member countries are contributing to the industry driven curriculum to increase the employability in particular trade or program.

Major Challenges to Enhance Iil

The analysis reveals that the major challenges faced in TVET education are as presented in table 4 below:

Table 4: Survey result on challenges to implement IIL schemes.

These challenges may be summarized as under –

  • Maintaining commitment to the partnership initiative Joint Unit
  • Associating with partners that will not be reputation risks
  • Avoiding conflict of interests between potential relationships
  • Preventing unfair advantage another)
  • Ensuring accountability & transparency
  • Maintaining active and sustainable interest
  • Managing partner’s expectations & external other stakeholders

Suggestions to Implement/Strengthen Iil

The various suggestions (for strengthening and enhancing the industry institute linkages) that are the outcome of the survey are compiled together and presented in following table 5.

Table 5: Survey result on suggestions to implement/ strengthen IIL


The research study reveals that there is an immense and immediate need to strengthen the industry-institute partnership in these member countries to face today's challenges in the era of globalization, IR 4.0 and technological advancement. This can be addressed by redesigning jointly the curriculum (addressing new ICT based methods such as virtual reality, augmented reality, internet of things, 3D printing etc.) in TVET education meeting the requirements of industries and by providing the practical training or on-job training in industries with suitable assessment and monitoring framework, by promoting dual training schemes, by promoting students’ internship program, scholarships and teachers training, by establishing sectoral skill and industry advisory committees at national level having representation from industries and academics under the governing principle of shared management structure, by providing incentives from the federal government to the industries in the form of less tax, by increasing the research and development fund and by recognizing the relevance of the contribution of such linkages in TVET. However, it is equally important to provide enough financial viability and incentives to all such partners who are ready to create the long-term sustainable relationship in the TVET sector. It is needless to say here that the analysis of the operational capacities of both the partners plays a significant role in making successful collaboration. Thus, there is an immediate need of creating a comprehensive and integrated legal framework to provide the robust industry-institute linkages policies, defining clearly the roles of each party, for effective implementation of these collaboration processes.


For any country to become truly globally competitive, industry and Institution must complement each other. This can be achieved through the sustainable and productive long-term industry-institute partnership by promoting the core mission of each partner and by accelerating the research in relevant areas that is being quickly followed by a suitable assessment framework.

Thus, it is seen from the analysis that the member countries are trying hard to create the conducive environment for enhancing the industry-institute linkages. Accordingly, the curriculum reforms have been made by Bhutan by incorporating the expertise guidance from the industry. Whereas, Fiji has introduced the Fiji Qualifications Framework (FQF), the recognition and registration of training providers and the accreditation of courses, qualification levels. Malaysia and Pakistan has introduced the concept of industry advisory committees and sector skill committees respectively to address the issue of relevance and sustainability of TVET programs including the curriculum reforms. It can also be concluded that the clear TOR (terms of reference), enough fund provision and use of ICT will further improve the quality of TVET in the region through developing the strong linkages between the industry and institution.

Thus, it can be concluded that the CPSC member countries have to plan strategically for strengthening the industry-institute linkages to provide an exclusive leverage to promote local economic development of the country by providing skill and productive human resources to generate competitive advantages who make use of the innovations.


The author is highly indebted to the Director General and RPID division of CPSC for their cooperation to collect the relevant data from CPSC member countries through their liaison officers. The author is also grateful to all Liaison officers of member countries for proactively supporting and providing the relevant data for the research.


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