Taj Mahal

Member Since 1973

Partner Ministry/Organization
Department of Higher Education, Ministry of Human Resource Development

Recent Programs Held
2019: (1) Regional Program on Entrepreneurship in TVET (Feb 18-22); (2) APACC International Accreditors’ Refresher Training (Feb 15-1)

2018: (1) Regional Program on Quality and Sustainable TVET (Oct 8-10); (2) In-Country Program on Quality Assurance of TVET Institutions through Accreditation (Mar 5-9)

2017: (1) Regional Program on Quality and Sustainable TVET (Oct 24-28); (2) In Country Program on Instructional Design and Delivery Systems (Mar 14-18)

2016: (1) Regional Program on Skills Development for Poverty Alleviation; (2) International Conference on Sustainable Skill Development: Challenges and Future Perspectives and; (3) Special Program on Young Business Leaders Program on Socially Responsible Business (SRB) (Feb 15-20)

2015: (1) In-Country Program on Accreditation and Certification (Oct 26-30); (2) In-Country Program on Blue Ocean Strategy in TVET (Feb 9-13)

2013: Special In-Country Program on Champion Leaders Development Program on TVET Skills for Poverty Alleviation (SDPA) (Dec 16-20)

2012: In-Country Program (ICP) on Web-based Teaching and Learning System (Dec 17-22)

Address of Embassy/Consulate in Manila
2190 Paraiso Street, DasmariƱas Village, P.O. Box 2123, MCPO, Makati City, Metro Manila

Country Flag

Official Name
Republic of India

Land Area
3,287,263 km, (1,269,219 sq mi) (7th)

1,393,409,038 (2nd)

Delhi (est. pop. 10,927,986)

Largest Cities
Mumbai (est. pop. 12,691,836)
Bengaluru (est. pop. 5,104,047)
Kolkata (est. pop. 4,631,392)
Chennai (est. pop. 4,328,063)
Ahmedabad (est. pop. 3,719,710)

Country Borders
Sri Lanka (South), Pakistan (west) China, Nepal, and Bhutan (northeast); Myanmar and Bangladesh (east)

Hinduism, Islam, Christianity, Sikhism, Buddhism, Jainism

Major Languages
Hindi, English, Assamese, Bengali, Bodo, Dogri, Gujarati, Kannada, Kashmiri, Kokborok, Konkani, Maithili, Malayalam, Manipuri, Marathi, Mizo, Nepali, Odia, Punjabi, Sanskrit, Santali, Sindhi, Tamil, Telugu, Urdu


National Holidays
26 January 1950 (Republic Day; Adoption of the Indian Constitution) 15 August 1947 (Independence Day from Britain)

Education Basic Facts

No. of Years of Primary Education
8 years: Primary (1st standard to 5th standard), Upper Primary (6th standard to 8th standard)

Major Universities
Indian Institute of Science, Indian Institute of Technology Indore, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee; JSS of Higher Academy and Research.

Primary education (ISCED 1)
99.9% (UNESCO, 2020)

Secondary education, all programmes
75.48% (UNESCO, 2020)

Tertiary School Enrollment (Total) all programmes
29.4% (UNESCO, 2020)

Ministry/ Ministries Supervising Education
The Ministry of Human Resource Development. Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship

Education as % of GDP
3.5 % (UNESCO, 2016)


Agency Handling TVET
Ministry of Human Resource Development and Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship

Formal TVET System (Source: UNESCO-UNEVOC)
Technical and vocational education and training (TVET) in India is known as vocational education and training (VET) and aims to provide lifelong learning opportunities, develop a healthy attitude among students towards work and life, enhance student employability, and reduce the mismatch between the demand and supply of skilled labor (UNESCO-UNEVOC, 2018).

Figure.1 TVET system in India education.
Note. Figure from Compiled in collaboration with the Pandit Sunderlal Sharma Central Institute of Vocational Education (PSSCIVE), India. (November, 2018). UNEVOC. Retrieved May 16, 2019 from: https://unevoc.unesco.org/wtdb/worldtvetdatabase_ind_en.pdf

Figure 2: India’s Technical and Vocational Training Governmental System. Note. Figure from Perya, S. (November, 2008). Technical and Vocational Education and Training in India. Ministry of Education New zealand. Retrieved May 16, 2019 from: http://www.forschungsnetzwerk.at/downloadpub/2008_Education_and_training_in_india_2008.pdf

TVET strategy and key policy documents
The objective of the National Policy on Skill Development and Entrepreneurship, 2015 is to meet the challenge of skilling at scale with speed and standard (quality). It also provide an umbrella framework to all skilling activities being carried out within the country, to align them to common standards and link the skilling with demand centres.
The National Skill Development Mission was launched by the on 15.07.2015 on the occasion of World Youth Skills Day. The Mission has been developed to create convergence across sectors and States in terms of skill training activities. It will be implemented through a streamlined institutional mechanism driven by Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship (MSDE). Key institutional mechanisms for achieving the objectives of the Mission have been divided into three tiers, which will consist of a Governing Council for policy guidance at apex level, a Steering Committee and a Mission Directorate (along with an Executive Committee) as the executive arm of the Mission. Mission Directorate will be supported by three other institutions: National Skill Development Agency (NSDA), National Skill Development Corporation (NSDC), and Directorate General of Training (DGT) – all of which will have horizontal linkages with Mission Directorate to facilitate smooth functioning of the national institutional mechanism. Seven sub-missions have been proposed initially to act as building blocks for achieving overall objectives of the Mission.(i) Institutional Training, (ii) Infrastructure, (iii) Convergence, (iv) Trainers, (v) Overseas Employment, (vi) Sustainable Livelihoods, (vii) Leveraging Public Infrastructure.

Governance and financing
The VET system is governed in a decentralized manner through various institutions and departments, including: The National Skill Development Agency (NSDA) is an autonomous body that coordinates and harmonizes skills development activities. It is responsible for, amongst other things, the coordination and implementation of the National Skill Qualifications Framework (NSQF) under the Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship.
The National Skill Development Corporation India (NSDC) is a public-private partnership non-profit company set up by the Ministry of Finance. The NSDC incentivizes skill development programmes by providing financing, either as loans or equity, to selected private sector initiatives including for-profit private, non-profit industry associations, or non-profit NGOs. The NSDC’s finances come from the National Skill Development Fund. The NSDC supports the development of curriculum, faculty training standards, quality assurance, technology platforms, student placement, and setting up standards and accreditation systems in partnership with industry associations.

Qualification Framework
The structure of TVET in India is complex, as is the case in most of the world. About 17 different ministries within the government provide and finance various TVET programs. Although the bulk of TVET provisions fall under the purview of the education and labor departments, since TVET is a “concurrent” subject, the center and states share responsibility for the provision of TVET in the country. The terms ‘vocational education’ and ‘vocational training’ refer to two distinct strands of TVET in India, but are often used interchangeably. Vocational education programs are offered as part of the formal education cycle whereas vocational training programs fall outside of the formal school cycle.
Vocational Education Programs
At the secondary school level, TVET is managed by the Ministry of Human Resource Development ([MoHRD] or, the Education Department) and governed by the scheme on the ‘Vocationalization of Secondary Education’, which was introduced in 1987. As part of this scheme, students can opt for a vocational curriculum in grades 9 to 12 at any of 6,500 public secondary schools offering vocational options. The range of vocational courses offered as part of this scheme includes disciplines like agriculture, health and home sciences, education and technology, and business and commerce. Students going through the formal vocational education system at the secondary school level can continue their education in the general education system or access vocational training options available at the postsecondary level (like polytechnics, also managed by the education ministry, and offering diploma-level programs in engineering and technology trades).
The TVET programs managed by the Ministry of Labor in India are classified as ‘‘vocational training’. These options include the ‘Craftsmen Training Scheme’ (CTS) and the ‘Apprenticeship Training Scheme’ (ATS) and are outside of the formal schooling cycle.
The CTS was designed to equip youth with skills for productive employment and ensure the needs of the labor market were being met with a steady flow of skilled industrial workers. The ‘Industrial Training Institutes’ (ITIs) was set up as part of this scheme and offer certificate-level courses in about 115 trades. The ITIs have relatively flexible entry requirements – students can enroll upon completion of 8 grades of schooling as well as after graduating high school. This flexibility makes ITIs accessible to secondary school leavers as well as completers. The duration of the programs offered ranges from three months to about three years. Similar programs are offered at private institutions called Industrial Training Centres (ITCs). In total, there are about 6000 ITIs and ITCs currently operating in India.
Through the ATS, industries or establishments offer apprenticeships in about 140 trades covering agriculture, engineering, health and paramedical, home science, and so on. Like the ITIs, these programs also have flexible entry criteria making them accessible to school leavers. The ATS is managed by both, the education and labor departments. Depending on the trade and the level of prior education and training of the student, it can take between 4 months to 4 years to gain various levels of certification in a selected trade.
Vocational Training Programs
Besides the formal structure of TVET described above, India also has a large private and informal network through which TVET is provided. The private, informal providers include non-government organizations (NGOs), community polytechnics, adult education centers, and establishments providing informal apprenticeships. These programs primarily offer relatively short-term training opportunities for informal sector workers (Sharma, 2010). The absence of any systematic documentation or research on 9 TVET provisions outside of the formal offerings makes the informal network somewhat of a black box.

Levels of NVQS
National Qualifications Framework (NQF)
The NQF in India has ten levels and is coordinated and monitored by the National Skill Development Agency under the Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship.
Table. 1 National Qualifications Framework of India
Note. Figure from Compiled in collaboration with the Pandit Sunderlal Sharma Central Institute of Vocational Education (PSSCIVE), India. (November, 2018). UNEVOC. Retrieved May 16, 2019 from: https://unevoc.unesco.org/wtdb/worldtvetdatabase_ind_en.pdf
To be more specific for the formal TVET System, the levels of NVQS are divided as below:
Table 2 Formal TVET System

Note. Figure from Compiled in collaboration with the Pandit Sunderlal Sharma Central Institute of Vocational Education (PSSCIVE), India. (November, 2018). UNEVOC. Retrieved May 16, 2019 from: https://unevoc.unesco.org/wtdb/worldtvetdatabase_ind_en.pdf
National Skills Qualifications Framework (NSQF)
The National Skills Qualifications Framework (NSQF) is a competency-based framework that organizes all qualifications according to a series of levels of knowledge, skills and aptitude. These levels, graded from one to ten, are defined in terms of learning outcomes which the learner must possess regardless of whether they are obtained through formal, non-formal or informal learning. NSQF in India was notified on 27th December 2013. All other frameworks, including the NVEQF (National Vocational Educational Qualification Framework) released by the Ministry of HRD, stand superseded by the NSQF. Under NSQF, the learner can acquire the certification for competency needed at any level through formal, non-formal or informal learning. In that sense, the NSQF is a quality assurance framework.

TVET Financing
The Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship is responsible for allocating the financing in VET. Fund is collected from: (i) general tax revenues used to fund public and private vocational training providers; (ii) in-firm financing and provision of training by and for a firm conducting VET; (iii) Corporate Social Responsibility funds spent on VET; and (iv) a levy on firms by the government held in a special fund, resources from which are earmarked VET.
The National Skill Development Fund, set up in 2009 by the Government of India, aims to raise funds from government and non-government sectors for skill development. A public trust set up by the government is the custodian of the fund. The trust accepts donations and contributions in cash or kind from the contributors. VET in India is not legally free and the government and private providers decide the fee.
Table 3 Education Finance
Note. Figure from Compiled in collaboration with the Pandit Sunderlal Sharma Central Institute of Vocational Education (PSSCIVE), India. (November, 2018). UNEVOC. Retrieved May 16, 2019 from: https://unevoc.unesco.org/wtdb/worldtvetdatabase_ind_en.pdf

  1. India: Education and Literacy. (n.d.). UNESCO. Retrieved May 16, 2019 form: http://uis.unesco.org/en/country/in
  2. Ministry of Skills Development and Entrepreneurship (2018) National Skill Development Mission. Retrieved from: https://www.msde.gov.in/nationalskillmission.html
  3. Perya, S. (2008). Technical and Vocational Education and Training in India. Ministry of Education New zealand. Retrieved from: http://www.forschungsnetzwerk.at/downloadpub/2008_Education_and_training_in_india_2008.pdf
  4. Tognatta, N. (2014).Technical and Vocational Education and Training in India - A Study of Choice and Returns. Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations. Retrieved May 16, 2019 form: http://repository.upenn.edu/edissertations/1472
  5. UNESCO-UNEVOC, Pandit Sunderlal Sharma Central Institute of Vocational Education (PSSCIVE), India. (2018). TVET in India. Retrieved May 16, 2019 from: https://unevoc.unesco.org/wtdb/worldtvetdatabase_ind_en.pdf
  6. Vijay, G. (n.d.). Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) System in India For Sustainable Development. UNESCO-UNEVOC. Retrieved May 16, 2019 from: https://unevoc.unesco.org/up/India_Country_Paper.pdf
$2,660,245.25 (2020)

GDP Per Capita
$1,927.7 (2020)

Indian rupee (INR) = 100 paise

Major Exports
Refined Petroleum (11.9% = $39.2B), Diamonds (6.83% = $22.5B), Packaged Medicaments (4.8% = $15.8B), Jewellery (4.28% = $14.1B), and Cars (2.17% = $7.15B)

Major Imports
Crude Petroleum (19.6% = $92.7B), Gold (7.13% = $33.8B), Coal Briquettes (5.25% = $24.9B), Diamonds (4.52% = $21.4B), and Petroleum Gas (3.46% = $16.4B)

Major Industries
Software, petroleum products, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, agriculture, textiles, steel, transportation equipment, machinery, leather, cement, mining, construction

Major Export Partners
United States (16.8% = $55.3B), United Arab Emirates (8.68% = $28.6B), China (5.27% = $17.4B), Hong Kong (3.48% = $11.5B), and Singapore (2.89% = $9.53B)

Major Import Partners
China (15.3% = $72.6B), United States (7.11% = $33.7B), United Arab Emirates (5.66% = $26.8B), Saudi Arabia (5.31% = $25.1B), and Iraq (4.17% = $19.8B)

Foreign Exchange Reserves
$ 590.227 billion (2020)


Population below Poverty Line
21.9% (2011)

Gini Coefficient
35.7 (2011)

Competitiveness Rank

Ease of Doing Business Rank
130th (out of 190)

Employment Rate
43% (2020)

Unemployment Rate
7.1% (2020)

Ram Nath Kovind (https://www.ndtv.com/india-news/ram-nath-kovind-says-media-played-important-role-in-mitigating-impact-of-coronavirus-2325774)
Type of Government
Federal parliamentary constitutional republic

Head of State
Ram Nath Kovind (President)

Head of Government
Narendra Modi

Legislating Body/Bodies
  • Parliament of India
  • Upper House: Rajya Sabha
  • Lower House: Lok Sabha

Image from www.nationmultimedia.com

Time zone
UTC + 5:30

Human Development Index
0.645 (md, 131st out of 189) (2019)

Literacy Rate
74.4% of the total population (Male: 82.4%; Female: 65.8%) as of 2018

% of people with internet access
45.0% (approx. 624 million of the population) (Kemp, 2021)

Life Expectancy
Total: 69 years (Male: 68 years; Female: 70 years) (2019)

Doctors per Capita
0.928 Physicians; and 2.389 nurses & midwives per 1,000 population (2019)

Drives on the

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ISO 3166 code

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