About CPSC

About CPSC

APACC Team

Members
Adrienne Abril

Adrienne Abril
APACC Officer

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Julifer Madeja

Julifer Madeja
APACC Assistant

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Programs at a Glance (2018-2019)

The various training programs listed herein are in response to the priority needs of member countries identified in the CPSC Strategic Plan 2018-2023 and as an answer to the emerging regional issues with implications to TVET at large.

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Thailand

thailand


CPSC Membership

Partner Ministry/Organization Office of the Vocational Education Commission (OVEC), Thailand International Cooperation Agency (TICA)
Liaison Officers Mrs. Suphatra Srimaitreephithak
Director General
Thailand International Cooperation Agency
The Government Complex
Ratthaprasanabhakti Building (South Zone)
8th Floor, Laksi District
Bangkok, Thailand
Recent Programs Held in the Country 2016: (1) In-Country Program on Technopreneurial Skills
Development. November 14-18, 2016 (2) Regional Program on Developing Organizational Excellence among TVET Institutions through Accreditation". August 1-5, 2016
2015: In-Country Program on Accreditation and Certification of TVET Institutions. November 23-25, 2015.
2014: In-Country program on TVET Image Building. November 24-28, 2014.
2013: (1) Special In-Country Program on Champion Leaders’ Development Program for TVET Skills for Poverty Alleviation. November 25-29, 2013. (2) Regional Program on Strengthening the Culture of Entrepreneurship in TVET”, July 15-19, 2013.
Ambassador H.E. Thanatip Upatising
Ambassador of the Kingdom of Thailand
Address of Embassy/Consulate in Manila No. 505 Rizal Drive
107 Rada Street, Legaspi Village
Makati City, Philippines

Economy

baht

GDP (billions) $390.592 billion (Nominal: 28th, 2016 est.)
GDP Per Capita $5,742 (nominal; 2016)
Currency Thai Baht (THB) = 100 satangs
Major Exports Textiles, footwear, fishery products, rice, rubber, jewelry, automobiles, computers and electrical appliances
Major Imports Capital and intermediate goods, raw materials, consumer goods, fuels
Major Industries Automobiles and automotive parts, financial services, electric appliances and components, tourism, cement, auto manufacturing, heavy and light industries, appliances, computers and parts, furniture, plastics, textiles and garments, agricultural processing, beverages, tobacco
Major Export Partners United States 11.2%, China 11.1%, Japan 9.4%, Hong Kong 5.5%, Malaysia 4.8%, Australia 4.6%, Vietnam 4.2%, Singapore 4.1% (2015 est.)
Major Import Partners China 20.3%, Japan 15.4%, United States 6.9%, Malaysia 5.9%, UAE 4.0% (2015 est.)
Foreign Exchange Reserves $181.8 Billion
Inflation 3.02%
Population below Poverty Line 13.15%
Gini Coefficient 48.4% (2015)
Competitiveness Rank 34th
Ease of Doing Business Rank 46th (out of 190)
Employment Rate 99.1% (2016, est.)
Unemployment Rate 0.9% (2016, est.)

Politics

crown-princeMaha Vajiralongkorn (Monarch)

Type of Government Unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy (de jure) Military junta (de facto)
Head of State Maha Vajiralongkorn (Monarch)
Head of Government Prayut Chan-Ocha (Prime minister)
Legislating Body/Bodies National Legislative Assembly

Social Facts

thai-peopleImage from http://asiaexpatguides.com

Time zone UTC +7:00
Human Development Index 0.726 (high, 93rdout of 180)
Literacy Rate 96.7% (men, 96.6%; women, 96.7%)
% of people with internet access 39.32% (26,721,620)
Life Expectancy 74.90 years (Males: 71.90, Females: 78.00)
Drives on the Left
Calling code +66
ISO 3166 code TH
Internet TLD .th

Sri Lanka

srilanka


TVET System

No. of years of Primary Education 11
Major Universities University of Colombo
University of Kelaniya
University of Moratuwa
University of Ruhuna
University of Sri Jayewardenepura
University of Jaffna
Rajarata University
General Sir John Kotelawala Defense University
Eastern University of Sri Lanka
Sabaragamuwa University
Wayamba University of Sri Lanka
Uva Wellassa University
South Eastern University of Sri Lanka
Open University of Sri Lanka
Primary School Enrollment (Total) 317,899 (2016)
Tertiary School Enrollment (Total) 188,764 (2016)
Ministry/ Ministries Supervising Education Ministry of Education
Education as % of GDP 3.49% (2016)
Current Head Hon. Akila Viraj Kariyawasam
Agency Handling TVET Ministry of Skills Development and Vocational Training
(Ministry of National Policies and Economic Affairs)
(Ministry of Higher Education and Highways)
(Ministry of Tourism Development, Land and Christian Development Affairs)
Current Head (TVET Agency CEO, Director or Officer-in-charge, 2018) Mrs. P.N.K. Malalasekera
Director General
Department of Technical Education and Training
TVET System of Sri Lanka

srilanka_figure1

Figure 1.

Primary education starts at the age of five and lasts for five years. It is divided into five grades and finishes with the Grade 5 Scholarship and Placement Examination. Secondary education consists of two levels – junior secondary and senior secondary levels. Junior secondary level (grades 6-9) lasts four years while the senior secondary level (grades 10-11) lasts two years. At the end of secondary education, students sit the General Certificate of Education (GCE) Ordinary-level examination which gives access to one to two-year programmes at technical colleges and finishes with a vocational diploma. The GCE examination is followed by the last stage of formal education – the collegiate level – which lasts two years and leads to the GCE Advanced-level examination. Primary education is compulsory. After passing the GCE Advance level examination, students can continue with higher education at universities and national colleges of education or TVET institutions. Bachelor’s degrees usually take three to four years, master’s degrees take two years and doctoral degree programmes take three to five years.

Formal TVET system;
The Formal TVET sector of Sri Lanka comprises 348 public sector training centers and about 670 active private and Non-Governmental Organization (NGO) training centers.

srilanka_figure2

Figure 2. TVET System of Sri Lanka
Note. Figure reprinted from National Vocational Qualifications and Certifications System of Sri Lanka, by Ranjith. Retrieved from National Vocational Qualification Systems of CPSC Member Countries 2017, CPSC.

Non-formal and informal TVET systems;
A large number of non-formal TVET in Sri Lanka focuses on IT and is offered on a fee-levying basis. Nevertheless, there is a widespread network of non-fee levying institutions which are funded through national and international charities.

The National Vocational Qualifications Framework of Sri Lanka (NQVSL) recognizes competencies acquired through informal learning such as:
  • Workplace experiences;
  • Life experiences;
  • Self-directed study;
  • Informal uncertificated learning;
  • Formal uncertificated learning;
  • Informal undocumented study;
  • In-service training;
  • Distance education or open learning;
  • Community-based learning; and
  • Overseas education, training or experiences.
Competencies are assessed through Recognition of Prior Learning” (RPL) against NVQSL before candidates are awarded a National Vocational Qualifications (NVQ) certificate at the appropriate level.

srilanka_figure3

Figure 3.
Qualification Framework The National Vocational Qualifications Framework of Sri Lanka (NVQSL) is the key in unifying technical and vocational education and training. Its aim is to ensure that existing and new TVET activities are coordinated. The National Competency Standards (NCS) are prepared in consultation with the industry and curricula, trainer guides, trainee guides and assessment resources are prepared based on the NCS. A competency standard is a document defining competency units pertaining to skills, standards and activities related to acquiring relevant knowledge, competencies and attitudes. Competency units are identified based on industry requirements in a particular occupation.

Assessments are competency-based and the system is benchmarked against qualification systems in developed countries. Competency-based training curricula and related training, learning and assessment materials are included in the framework, together with requirements for registration and accreditation of training providers and their courses.

An operational manual for NVQSL is compiled by the Tertiary and Vocational Education Commission (TVEC) with the assistance of the National Apprentice and Industrial Training Authority (NAITA), Vocational Training Authority (VTA), Department of Technical Education (DTET), National Youth Services Council (NYSC) and National Institute of Technical Education (NITESL). The manual outlines agreed policies and processes for implementation of all competencies as outline in NVQSL. NVQSL comprises of seven qualification levels. Each level describes the learning process and requirements as well as occupational responsibility involved.
Levels of NVQS
LevelQualificationGeneralized Description
Level 1 NVQ 1 in Building Career Skills Introduces students to soft skills that will facilitate employment. These include communication skills in English which is required by most employers, along with cognitive skills and social attitudes that will enable employees to work together with others whilst understanding systems and routines and applying relevant knowledge.
Level 2 NVQ 2 in Developing Career Skills And NVQ 2 in Basic competencies for particular professions Develops Communication Skills in English and advanced cognitive skills, including time and task management, prioritization and organization. Basic work competencies develops an assistant worker able to function effectively under a qualified supervisor.
Level 3 NVQ 3, Certificate Introducing students to particular sectors And Competencies in a range of occupations for productive employability Develops understanding of basic requirements for a career in particular fields with knowledge of fundamentals in such areas and positive attitudes for career development therein. Sector Skills Councils will work together with the TVEC to develop appropriate courses to encourage entry into each sector.
Competent worker able to fulfil routine tasks in specific fields and work efficiently under a qualified supervisor.
Level 4 NVQ 4, Certificate in particular occupations Professional with competencies to work independently and as head of a team
Level 5 NVQ 5, National Diploma Professional competent to work independently and take administrative decisions, and to supervise processes at middle management level.
Level 6 NVQ 6, Higher National Diploma Professional with problem solving capacity who manages processes at middle management level.
Level 7 Bachelor Degree Professional with capacity to manage processes in a particular field and with the flexibility to develop capacities in other areas of work.
Table 1. National Vocational Qualification Framework (NVQF) of Sri Lanka
Note. Table reprinted from National Vocational Qualifications and Certifications System of Sri Lanka, by Ranjith. Retrieved from National Vocational Qualification Systems of CPSC Member Countries 2017, CPSC.

Assessments are conducted by licensed assessors who are hired by accredited training centres where trainees take competency based training courses. Assessors examine trainees’ progress reports, practical and theoretical examination results and other relevant documentation before they admit trainees to NVQ Assessments.

NVQ certificates can also be acquired without completing a competency-based course. The National Apprenticeship and Industrial Training Authority (NAITA) or any other NVQ-accredited public vocational training center can issue NVQ certificates through the Recognition of Prior Learning System (RPL). Candidates are assessed for their competencies before being awarded a NVQ certificate. Assessment includes inspection of supportive documents or, if no documents available, visits at the workplace to conduct practical tests. Tests can also be conducted at training centers if the workplace does not offer adequate conditions. In case of failure to demonstrate required skills and competencies, candidates will be informed about shortcomings and advised on possibilities to upgrade skills to be awarded a NVQ certificate.
TVET Financing In Sri Lanka, the private sector is already burdened with heavy taxation which would make the imposition of a training levy difficult. However, marketable skills are most needed by the most underprivileged in society who cannot bear the cost of acquisition of TVET skills.

Therefore, a large proportion of education and training is provided free of charge, together with a daily allowance. Some public training institutions charge fees for high demand courses, such as computing, cosmetology, bakery etc.; and engage in training-related production to generate income. At present the state TVET sector depends heavily on treasury funds and a significant extent on donor/lender funding and interventions for development activities.
Employed Population & Employment Rates
YearEmployed PopulationEmployment Rates (% to Total Labor Force)
  Male Female Total Male Female Total
2015 5,097,798 2,733,178 7,830,976 97.0 92.4 95.3
2016 5,149,948 2,797,735 7,947,683 97.1 93.0 x95.6
Table 2.

References:

Tertiary & Vocational Education Commission (2016), Labor Market, Information Bulletin, Volume 02/16, Colombo, Sri Lanka

http://www.unevoc.unesco.org/go.php?q=page_unevoc_publications

http://www.unevoc.unesco.org/go.php?q=Online+library

http://www.cbsl.gov.lk/pics_n_docs/10_pub/_docs/efr/annual_report/AR2016/English/content.htm

Innovative Strategies in Technical and Vocational Education and Training for Accelerated Human Resource Development in South Asia: Sri Lanka. (2014). Retrieved from https://www.adb.org/sites/default/files/publication/176571/tvet-hrd-south-asia-sri-lanka.pdf

Moe.gov.lk. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.moe.gov.lk/english/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=1235&Itemid=1055

CPSC Membership

Partner Ministry/Organization Department of Technical Education and Training (DTET)
Liaison Officer Mrs. P.N.K. Malalasekera
Director General
Department of Technical Education and Training
Colombo, Sri Lanka
Recent Programs Held in the Country 2015: In-Country Program on Institutional Management. December 15-19, 2015.
2013: In-Country Program on Total Quality Management. December 2-6, 2013.
2012: In-Country program on Training Needs Analysis. December 10-14, 2012.
2011: (1) Special In-Country Program on Champion Leaders’ Development Program for TVET Skills for Poverty Alleviation. March 28-April 2, 2011. (2) In-Country program on Research and Development. December 19-23, 2011.
Ambassador H.E. Aruni Ranaraja
Ambassador of Sri Lanka
Address of Embassy/Consulate in Manila No. 505 Rizal Drive
No. 150, 7th Floor, G.C. Corporate Plaza
Legaspi Street, Legaspi Village
Makati City, Philippines

Economy

GDP (billions) $82.238 billion (Nominal: 67th, 2016 est.)
GDP Per Capita $3,849 (nominal; 2016)
Currency Sri Lankan Rupee (LKR) = 100 cents
Major Exports textiles and apparel, pharmaceuticals, tea, spices, diamonds, emeralds, coconut products, rubber manufactures, fish
Major Imports textile fabrics, mineral products, petroleum, foodstuffs, machinery and transportation equipment
Major Industries processing of rubber, tea, coconuts, tobacco and other agricultural commodities; telecommunications, insurance, banking; tourism, shipping; clothing, textiles; cement, petroleum refining, information technology services, construction
Major Export Partners United States 26.1%, United Kingdom 9%, India 7.2%, Germany 4.3% (2015)
Major Import Partners India 24.6%, China 20.6%, UAE 7.1%, Singapore 5.9%, Japan 5.7% (2015)
Foreign Exchange Reserves $7.2 Billion
Inflation 6.9%
Population below Poverty Line 4.3%
Gini Coefficient 36.4% (2015)
Competitiveness Rank 71st
Ease of Doing Business Rank 110th (out of 190)
Employment Rate 95.7% (2016, est.)
Unemployment Rate 4.3% (2016, est.)

Politics

sri-lanka-presMaithripala Sirisena (https://www.colombotelegraph.com)

Type of Government Unitary semi-presidential constitutional republic
Head of State Maithripala Sirisena (President)
Head of Government Ranil Wickremesinghe (Prime minister)
Legislating Body/Bodies Sri Lankan Parliament

Social Facts

afghans

Time zone UTC +5:30
Human Development Index 0.757 (high, 73rdout of 180)
Literacy Rate 92.6% (men, 93.6%; women, 91.7%)
% of people with internet access 29.99% (6,212,431)
Life Expectancy 74.90 years (Males: 71.60, Females: 78.30)
Drives on the Left
Calling code +94
ISO 3166 code LK
Internet TLD .lk

Singapore

singapore


CPSC Membership

Partner Ministry/Organization Department of Education
Liaison Officer Ms. Cindy Eu
Deputy Director
International Cooperation
Planning Division
Ministry of Education
1 North Buona Vista Drive, Singapore 138675
Recent Programs Held in the Country 2016: Regional Program on TVET Program for Principals and Administrators. May 9-13, 2016.
2015: Regional Program on TVET Program for Principals and Administrators. April 13-17, 2015. 2014: Regional Program on TVET Program for Principals and Administrators. February 24-28, 2014.
2012: Regional Program on TVET Program for Principals and Administrators. December 3-7, 2012.
Ambassador H.E. Kok Li Peng
Ambassador of the Republic of Singapore
Address of Embassy/Consulate in Manila No. 505 Rizal Drive
Bonifacio Global City
1634 Taguig City, Philippines

Economy

GDP (billions) $296, 642 billion (Nominal: 40th, 2016 est.)
GDP Per Capita $52,888 (nominal; 2016)
Currency Singaporean Dollar (SGD) = 100 cents
Major Exports Machinery and Equipment, Electronics and Telecommunications, Pharmaceuticals
Major Imports Machinery and Equipment, Mineral Fuels, Chemicals, Foodstuffs, Consumer Goods
Major Industries Financial Services, Electronics, Chemicals, Oil Drilling Equipment, Petroleum Refining, Rubber Processing and Products, Processed Food and Beverages
Major Export Partners Malaysia 12.2%, China 11.8%, Hong Kong 11.2%, Indonesia 9.9%, United States 5.8%, Japan 4.3%, South Korea 4.1%, Canada 3.7% (2013 est.)
Major Import Partners China 11.7%, Malaysia 10.9%, United States 10.4%, South Korea 6.4%, Japan 5.5%, Indonesia 5.2%, United Arab Emirates 4.4% (2013 est.)
Foreign Exchange Reserves $251.6 Billion
Inflation 1.0%
Gini Coefficient 46.4% (2015)
Competitiveness Rank 2nd
Ease of Doing Business Rank 2nd (out of 190)
Employment Rate 98.0% (2016, est.)
Unemployment Rate 2.0% (2016, est.)

Politics

tony-tanTony Tan (http://www.businesstimes.com.sg)

Type of Government Unitary dominant-party parliamentary republic
Head of State Tony Tan (President)
Head of Government Lee Hsien Loong (Prime Minister)
Legislating Body/Bodies Singapore Parliament

Social Facts

singaporeansImage from http://www.businesstimes.com.sg

Time zone UTC +8:00
Human Development Index 0.912 (very high, 11th out of 180)
Literacy Rate 96.8% (men, 98.7%; women, 95.1%)
% of people with internet access 82.10% (4,600,670)
Life Expectancy 83.10 years (Males: 80.0, Females: 86.1)
Drives on the Left
Calling code +65
ISO 3166 code SG
Internet TLD .sg

Papua New Guinea

png


CPSC Membership

Partner Ministry/Organization Department of Education
Liaison Officer Dr. Uke Kombra
Secretary
Department of Education Fincorp Haus, P O Box 446
Waigani NCD, Papua New Guinea
Recent Programs Held in the Country  
Ambassador H.E. Chris Vihruri
Ambassador of Papua New Guinea
Address of Embassy/Consulate in Manila 3rd Fl. Corinthian Plaza Condominium Bldg.
Paseo de Roxas, Makati City, Philippines

Economy

GDP (billions) $19.915 billion (Nominal: 111th , 2015 est.)
GDP Per Capita $2,745 (nominal; 2015)
Currency Papua New Guinea Kina (PGK) = 100 toea
Major Exports oil, gold, copper ore, logs, palm oil, coffee, cocoa, crayfish, prawns
Major Imports Machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods, food, fuels, chemicals
Major Industries copra crushing, palm oil processing, plywood production, wood chip production; mining (gold, silver, and copper); crude oil production, petroleum refining; construction, tourism
Major Export Partners Australia 29.0%, Japan 9.6%, China 4.8% (2012 est.)/td>
Major Import Partners Australia 36.3%, Singapore 13.8%, Malaysia 8.4%, China 7.9%, Japan 5.8%, United States 4.8% (2012 est.)
Foreign Exchange Reserves N/A
Inflation 5.2%
Population below Poverty Line 39.9%
Gini Coefficient 50.9% (highly unequal)
Competitiveness Rank N/A
Ease of Doing Business Rank 119th (out of 190)
Employment Rate 98.1% (2014, est.)
Unemployment Rate 1.9% (2014, est.)

Politics

queen-elizabethQueen Elizabeth (Image from http://www.dailymail.co.uk)

Type of Government Unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy
Head of State Elizabeth II (Monarch)
Bob Dadae (Governor-General)
Head of Government Peter O'Neill (Prime Minister)
Legislating Body/Bodies National Parliament

Social Facts

png people

Time zone UTC +10:00
Human Development Index 0.505 (low, 158th out of 180)
Literacy Rate 64.2% (men, 65.6%; women, 62.8%)
% of people with internet access 7.90% (601,926)
Life Expectancy 62.9 years (Males: 60.6, Females: 65.4)
Drives on the Left
Calling code +675
ISO 3166 code PG
Internet TLD .pg

Philippines

philippines


CPSC Membership

Partner Ministry/Organization Department of Foreign Affairs, Technical Education and Skills Development Authority
Liaison Officer Hon. Sec. Guiling A. Mamondiong
Director General
Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA)
TESDA Complex, East Service Road
South Super Highway, Taguig, Metro Manila, Philippines
Recent Programs Held in the Country 2016: (1) Regional Program on Skills in TVET Sustainability. September 13-21, 2016. (2) CPSC-CHMSC Collaborative Program on ICT and on Blended Learning. February 9-12, 2016. (3) In-Country Program on e-Learning Materials Development, and Use of Online Training Delivery Platforms. January 18-22, 2016
2015: In-Country Program on Management, Promotion and Conduct of TVET Technology Researches. April 5-9, 2015.
2013: In-Country Program on Making TVET-Industry Partnerships Work in the Philippines, October 4-13, 2013.
Ambassador Host Country
Address of Embassy/Consulate in Manila Host Country

Economy

philippine money

GDP (billions) $311.687 billion (Nominal: 36th, 2016 est.)
GDP Per Capita $3,002 (nominal; 2016)
Currency Philippine Peso (PHP) = 100 centavos
Major Exports semiconductors and electronic products, transport equipment, garments, copper products, petroleum products, coconut oil, fruits
Major Imports electronic products, mineral fuels, machinery and transport equipment, iron and steel, textile fabrics, grains, chemicals, plastic
Major Industries electronics assembly, business process outsourcing, food manufacturing, shipbuilding, chemicals, textiles, garments, metals, petroleum refining, fishing, rice
Major Export Partners Japan 21.3%, United States 14.7%, China 12.4%, Hong Kong 8.0%, Singapore 7.3%, South Korea 6.0%, Germany 4.1%, Taiwan 3.5%, Thailand 3.4%, Indonesia 3.1% (2013 est.)
Major Import Partners China 12.9%, United States 11.2%, Japan 8.4%, Taiwan 7.8%, South Korea 7.7%, Singapore 6.8%, Thailand 5.4%, Saudi Arabia 4.5%, Indonesia 4.5%, Germany 3.8% (2013 est.)
Foreign Exchange Reserves $85.90 Billion
Inflation 2.5%
Population below Poverty Line 21.6%
Gini Coefficient 43.04 (moderately unequal)
Competitiveness Rank 57th
Ease of Doing Business Rank 99th (out of 190)
Employment Rate 95.3% (2016, est.)
Unemployment Rate 4.7% (2016, est.)

Politics

philippine-president-rodrigo-duterteRodrigo Duterte (TOTO LOZANO/Presidential Photo)

Type of Government Unitary presidential constitutional republic
Head of State Rodrigo Duterte (president)
Head of Government Rodrigo Duterte (president)
Legislating Body/Bodies Philippine Congress
Upper House: Senate
Lower House: House of Representatives

Social Facts

filipinosImage from http://maxanthology.blogspot.com

Time zone UTC +8:00
Human Development Index 0.668 (medium, 115th out of 180)
Literacy Rate 96.3% (men, 95.8%; women, 96.8%)
% of people with internet access 40.70% (40,984,654)
Life Expectancy 68.5 years (Males: 65.3, Females: 72.0)
Drives on the Right
Calling code +63
ISO 3166 code PH
Internet TLD .ph

Pakistan

pakistan


TVET System

No. of years of Primary Education 8
Major Universities National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), Quaid-i-Azam University, Lahore University of Management Sciences (LUMS), University of Engineering & Technology (UET) Lahore, University of Karachi.
Primary School Enrollment (Total) 21.7 million (UNESCO, 2017)
Tertiary School Enrollment (Total) 1.94 million (UNESCO, 2017)
Ministry/ Ministries Supervising Education Ministry of Education
Education as % of GDP 2.76% (World Bank, 2017)
Current Education Minister (2018) Hon. Shafqat Mahmood
Agency Handling TVET National Vocational and Technical Training Commission (NAVTTC)
Current Head (TVET Agency CEO, Director or Officer-in-charge, 2018) Mr. Zulfiqar A. Cheema
Executive Director
National Vocational and Technical Training Commission (NAVTTC)
TVET System of Pakistan The Constitution of Pakistan mandates that all children between ages 5 and 16 are provided free and compulsory education to enhance adult literacy. 260,903 institutes constitute the education system of Pakistan, facilitating 41,018,384 students with the help of 1,535,461 teachers. Hence 31% educational institutes are run by private sector while 69% are public institutes (Ipripak, 2015).

Vocational Education is administered by the Pakistani Technical Education and Vocational Training Authority. The TVET system of Pakistan produces around 315,000 graduates annually, contributing to 5.5% of the almost 60 million large labour force (2016). The remainder usually contribute to workers in the informal sector (about 74% of the total labour force), which is unregulated and features poor remuneration.

The Pakistan’s National Vocational Qualification Framework (NVQF) is responsible for bridging this formal-informal gap divide and allowing the recognition and certification of skills through Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL) and Recognition of Current Competence (RCC). In order to improve the TVET system in Pakistan, the National Vocational & Technical Training Commission (NAVTTC) was established as an apex body and a national regulatory authority for TVET. It has taken the responsibility of addressing the challenges of Technical and Vocational stream in the country and was also involved in policy making, strategy formulation, regulation, and revamping of TVET system. The commission also promotes linkages among various stakeholders at national as well as International level.

Table 1: Enrolment in Technical and Vocational Institutions by Province, type and Gender (Public & Private, 2015-16)

pakistan_table1

Note. Reprinted from National Vocational Qualification Framework and Certification of Pakistan, by Soomro. Retrieved from National Vocational Qualification Systems of CPSC Member Countries 2017, CPSC.
Qualification Framework The National Skills Strategy 2009-2013 (NSS) recommended the migration to competency based training from curriculum based training to equip graduates with relevant skills for the industry and thus improve their employability whilst providing the industry with quality human resources.

The NVQF is intended to provide a distinct pathway for Technical and Vocational Education and Training within the overall national qualification structure. NVQF pre-vocational levels were designed to meet the basic TVET entry needs of the majority of the population with the little or no schooling, and five levels (Level 1 to 5 from certificate to diploma) to provide a clear pathway in TVET and entry into Higher Education degree levels.

The NVQF also defines the skills required for a qualification and determines the equivalence within TVET Sector, allows standardized vocational qualification, provides framework for quality assurance, vertical and horizontal progression for learners, recognition of national and international qualification systems, improvement in quality of training, and increased options for learners in selecting training programs.
Levels of NVQS

pakistan_figure1

Figure 1. Structure of NVQF in Pakistan
Note. Figure from National Vocational Qualification Framework and Certification of Pakistan, by Soomro. Retrieved from National Vocational Qualification Systems of CPSC Member Countries 2017, CPSC.

Each level of qualification framework is defined by a set of approved Level Descriptors (Copy enclosed). NVQF is the point of active guidance and integration of five interacting systems which, if properly coordinated ensures the achievement of the NVQF purposes- the qualification development system, the assessment delivery system, the training delivery system, the national skill certification system and national quality assurance system.
TVET Financing TVET in Pakistan is funded almost wholly through budget allocations. As additional funding sources are required to satisfy needs, the NSS has proposed the introduction of a training levy paid by employers to offset the shortcomings in public budget.

The quest to achieve and implement a successful TVET framework cannot be achieved without sufficient funding. Historically, emphasis has been placed on general education rather than TVET, and accordingly, funding for skills development has been low. Recently however, provincial and national budget allocations have risen steadily.

pakistan_figure2

Figure 2. Budget Allocation for TVET in Pakistan
Note. Figure from World TVET Database Pakistan, by UNESCO. Retrieved from https://unevoc.unesco.org/wtdb/worldtvetdatabase_pak_en.pdf

Challenges in Financing TVET

In spite of the rising levels of investment in TVET, Pakistan’s investment in TVET remains low – both by international standards and in terms of the challenges that the country must address. Additionally, public funding is allocated primarily towards public TVET institutions, and private institutions have to seek alternative, less viable methods of funding. This raises a fundamental issue about how to secure additional resources to expand and improve the quality of skills development programmes. NAVTTEC works with TEVTAs to mobilise new financial resources through ways of involving the private sector and encouraging TVET institutions to introduce revenue-generating activities.

References:

Education System in Pakistan. (n.d.). Retrieved October 3, 2018, from https://www.scholaro.com/ed/Countries/Pakistan/Education-System

Hussain, A. (2015, March 2). Education System of Pakistan: Issues, Problems and Solutions. Retrieved October 3, 2018, from http://www.ipripak.org/education-system-of-pakistan-issues-problems-and-solutions/

Soomro, F.A. (2017). National Vocational Qualification Framework and Certification of Pakistan. In National Vocational Qualification Systems of CPSC Member Countries(pp. 127-140). Manila: CPSC. doi:978-971-8557-98-3

Skills for Growth & Development A Draft National Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) Policy. (2014, November). Retrieved October 3, 2018, from http://www.moent.gov.pk/mopttm/userfiles1/file/Final Consult Paper of TEVT Policy.pdf

World TVET Database Pakistan. (n.d.). Retrieved November, 2013, from https://unevoc.unesco.org/wtdb/worldtvetdatabase_pak_en.pdf

CPSC Membership

Partner Ministry/Organization National Vocational & Technical Training Commission (NATVTTC)
Liaison Officer Mr. Naeem Iqbal
Director (Accreditation)
National Vocational & Technical Training Commission
5th Floor Evacuee Trust Complex
Aga Khan Road, F-5/1, Islamabad, Pakistan
Recent Programs Held in the Country 2016: International TVET Conference. October 3-4, 2016.
2015: In-Country Program on Developing Monitoring and Evaluation Tools in TVET. March 9-13, 2015.
2012: In-Country Program on Accreditation and Certification of TVET. June 25-29, 2012.
Ambassador H.E. Safdar Hayat
Ambassador of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan
Address of Embassy/Consulate in Manila 6th Floor, Alexander House
132 Amorsolo Street, Legaspi Village
Makati City, Philippines

Economy

GDP (billions) $ 271.050 billion (Nominal: 43rd, 2015 est.)
GDP Per Capita $1,428 (nominal; 2015)
Currency Pakistan Rupee (PKR) = 100 paisa/rupayya
Major Exports Textiles, Vegetable Products, Mineral, Leather, Food and Beverages, Animal Farming, Metals, Plastic
Major Imports Food, Machinery, Transport Vehicles, Textile, Fertilizers and other chemicals, Raw metal, Refined Petroleum, Crude Petroleum
Major Industries textiles and apparel, food processing, pharmaceuticals, construction materials, chemicals
Major Export Partners United States 13.3%, China 10.9%, United Arab Emirates 8.6%, Afghanistan 8.5%, Germany 5.1% (2015 est.)
Major Import Partners China 17%, United Arab Emirates 15%, Kuwait 8.8%, Saudi Arabia 8.5%, Malaysia 4.8%
Foreign Exchange Reserves $22.434 billion
Inflation 3.7%
Population below Poverty Line 21%
Gini Coefficient 32.8 (moderately equal)
Competitiveness Rank 122nd (out 0f 138)
Ease of Doing Business Rank 144th (out of 190)
Employment Rate 93.5% (2014, est.)
Unemployment Rate 6.5% (2014, est.)

Politics

Mamnoon HussainMamnoon Hussain (https://www.gg2.net)

Type of Government Federal parliamentary constitutional republic
Head of State Mamnoon Hussain (President)
Head of Government Nawaz Sharif (Prime Minister)
Legislating Body/Bodies Parliament
Upper House: Senate
Lower house: National Assembly

Social Facts

pakistaniImage from http://talib.pk

Time zone UTC +5:00
Human Development Index 0.538 (low, 147th out of 180)
Literacy Rate 56.4% (men, 69.6%; women, 42.7%)
% of people with internet access 18.00% (34,006,477)
Life Expectancy 66.4 years (Males: 65.5, Females: 67.5)
Drives on the Left
Calling code +92
ISO 3166 code PK
Internet TLD .pk

Nepal

nepal


TVET System

No. of years of Primary Education 8
Major Universities Kathmandu University, Tribhuvan University, Pokhara University
Primary School Enrollment (Total) 4.13 million
Tertiary School Enrollment (Total) 371,000
Ministry/ Ministries Supervising Education Ministry of Education
Education as % of GDP 5.1% (2017, UNESCO)
Current Head Hon. Giriraj Mani Pokharel
Agency Handling TVET Council for Technical Education and Vocational Training (CTEVT)
Current Head Hon. Giriraj Mani Pokharel
Chairperson, CTEVT
TVET System of Nepal The current Education system of Nepal, which is in a transitional phase from the Old Indian system, is structured as follows:
  • Pre-school education; kindergarten (under-5 age group);
  • School education: primary and secondary education (duration: 12 years, children aged 5-17);
  • Higher education: (children aged 18 and up)
The language of instruction in primary and secondary education is Nepalese. Higher education is offered in both English and Nepalese. All primary and lower secondary education (upto grade 8) is compulsory.

nepal_figure1

Figure 1. Education System in Nepal
Note. Figure from The Nepalese Education System Described and Compared with the Dutch System, by Nuffic.

Vocationally-oriented secondary education

Vocationally-oriented secondary education is coordinated by the Council for Technical Education and Vocational Training (CTEVT). Students who have completed lower secondary classes upto grade 8 may opt in to CTEVT programmes that lead to the Technical School Leaving Certificate (TSLC). Those who attained an SLC after grade 10 may continue to other programmes on the path to a diploma or other qualification such as the I.SC.AG or Proficiency Certificate.

NSTB

The Skill Testing Authority (STA) formally initiated skill testing activity in Nepal in 1983, and introduced a system of occupational classification, development of skill standards, skill testing and certification based upon the guidelines of Asia Pacific Skill Development Project/ International Labor Organization (APSDEP/ILO). After the constitution of CTEVT in 1989, the STA was integrated into the jurisdiction of CTEVT as the National Skill Testing Board (NSTB)
Qualification Framework Introduction and Purpose of Having National Vocational Qualifications Framework in Nepal

The main aim of the introduction of NVQF in Nepal is to address weaknesses in the current systems of technical and vocational education and qualifications. Amongst the weaknesses identified are:
  • No clear and readily understandable pattern of provision as well as considerable overlap, duplication and gaps in the TVET provision;
  • Many barriers to accessing TVET qualifications and inadequate arrangements for progression and transfer of credit
  • Assessment methods are biased towards testing of knowledge rather than skill or competence
  • Insufficient recognition of learning gained outside formal education and training
  • Limited quality assurance and relevance of TVET qualifications.
The NVQF is being developed to standardize explicitly the outcomes of TVET in Nepal, and increase the quality and marketability of the TVET graduates. A shared and common characteristic of these developments is the need to make the meaning of qualifications more transparent and explicit. The expectation is that this will make it easier for all the stakeholders (especially employers and students) in the field of TVET to identify the nature and level of qualifications, to compare them and to identify more easily their articulation possibilities, both within and across national boundaries.

Implementation of a NVQF system is also a transition from a traditional supply-driven TVET system to an entrepreneurial/innovative demand led TVET system VQF have been described as fulfilling a number of purposes. Broadly, these purposes can be classified under the following three main headings:
  1. Equivalency and linkages;
  2. Quality control; and
  3. Coherence and coverage

nepal_figure2

Figure 2: Transition Framework of Nepal’s Traditional TVET System, to an Innovative/Entrepreneurial TVET System for Quality and Effectiveness
Note. Figure from National Vocational Qualifications and Certifications System of Nepal, by Shrestha. Retrieved from National Vocational Qualification Systems of CPSC Member Countries 2017, CPSC.

nepal_figure3

Figure 3. Purpose of Vocational Qualifications Systems
Note. Figure from National Vocational Qualifications and Certifications System of Nepal, by Shrestha. Retrieved from National Vocational Qualification Systems of CPSC Member Countries 2017, CPSC.
Levels of NVQS The NSTB has developed the National Occupational Skill Standards/Profiles in 237 different occupations, wherein 108000 crafts persons are skill tested and 72730 are certified.

A skill test is the corresponding performance test based on the occupational skill standard which must be demonstrated by every individual to obtain a “NATIONAL SKILL CERTIFICATE” indicating that the certificate holder meets the requirements of a trade/occupation.

Skill Test Prerequisites:

The requirements to participate in the skill test are as follows:
  1. Nepalese Citizenship Card
  2. Four numbers of passport size and one auto size photos
  3. Age 16 years or above
Skill Test Level Criteria for Completion
Skill Test Level - Elementary
  • Successful completion of 140 hours vocational training in relevant occupation/trade.
Skill Test Level - 1
  • Literate with knowledge and skill in the relevant occupation with minimum of one year work experience in a related occupation/trade; or
  • Successful completion of one month (160 hours) vocational training in relevant occupation/trade; or
  • Vocational training with six months work experience in the relevant occupation/trade.
Skill Test Level - 2
  • Literate with knowledge and skill in the relevant occupation with minimum of three years work experience in a relevant occupation/trade; or
  • One year training (minimum 600 hours theory and 800 hours practical) in relevant occupation/trade; or
  • One year’s work experience after the level-1 ST certificate passed in relevant occupation/trade.
Skill Test Level - 3
  • Literate with knowledge and skill in the relevant occupation with minimum of five years work experience in a relevant occupation/trade; or
  • Two years work experience after one year training in a relevant occupation/trade; or
  • One years work experience after skill level-2 certificate passed in relevant occupation/trade.
Skill Test Level - 4 (For Ophthalmic Assistant)
  • Ophthalmic Assistant, Level-3 passed with three year experience and one year training; or
  • Certificate level in Health Science (Ophthalmology) equivalent passed with three years experience and one year training.
TVET Financing TVET financing in Nepal can be be viewed to coming from informal and formal sources. Informal sources include contributions from individual, households, unorganized firms/NGOs as well as community sources. They are classified as informal since it is difficult to estimate the spending from these sources as there no mechanism in place to record them, and they therefore remain outside the national account system. Formal sources of funding include the support from the government (including donor support) and other organized institutions including local bodies, semi-autonomous agencies, I/NGOs, and private agencies.

Table 1. Allocation of Public Resources to TVET by Years

nepal_table1

Note. Reprinted from Rhetoric of Developing Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) in Nepal: Analysis of the Financing of the Sub-Sector, by Parajuli. Retrieved from Technical and Vocational Education and Training Development Journal

Table 2. Share of Foreign Aid in TVET Programs

nepal_table2

Note. Reprinted from Rhetoric of Developing Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) in Nepal: Analysis of the Financing of the Sub-Sector, by Parajuli. Retrieved from Technical and Vocational Education and Training Development Journal

References:

NSTB. (2017). Retrieved October 1, 2018, from http://ctevt.org.np/page.php?pagecat=7

Nuffic. (2014). Education system Nepal. The Nepalese Education System Described and Compared with the Dutch System. Retrieved October 1, 2018

Parajuli, M. N. (2013). Rhetoric of developing technical and vocational education and training (TVET) in Nepal: Analysis of the financing of the sub-sector. Technical and Vocational Education and Training Development Journal, 13(1), 58-68.

Shrestha, P. B. (2017) National Vocational Qualifications and Certifications System of Nepal. In National Vocational Qualification Systems of CPSC Member Countries (pp. 25-29). Manila: CPSC. doi:978-971-8557-98-3

CPSC Membership

Partner Ministry/Organization Council for Technical Education and Vocational Training (CTEVT)
Liaison Officer Mr. Pushpa Raman Wagle
Member Secretary
Council for Technical Education and Vocational Training (CTEVT)
Sanothimi, Bhaktapur, P.B. 3546
Kathmandu, Nepal
Recent Programs Held in the Country 2017: International Program on “Sharing and Learning on National Vocational Qualifications System (NVQS)”. March 6-10, 2017.
2016: In-Country Program on Research and Development. October 24-28, 2016.
2015: In-Country Program on Developing Monitoring and Evaluation Tools in TVET. March 9-13, 2015.
2014: In-Country Program on Entrepreneurship Development. February 10 to 14, 2014.
2011: (1): In-Country Program on PPCP in TVET. April 4-8, 2011 (2): Special In-Country Program on Capacity Building of Champion Leaders’ Training Program. November 13-17, 2011.
Ambassador Mr. Jose Paulo E. Campos
Honorary Consul
Consulate of the Federal Republic of Nepal to the Philippines
Address of Embassy/Consulate in Manila 8/F, The Pearl Manila Hotel
1155 Gen. Luna St., Ermita, Manila 1000, Philippines

Economy

nepalese rupee

GDP (billions) $21.154 billion (Nominal: 107th, 2015 est.)
GDP Per Capita $805 (nominal; 2015)
Currency Nepalese Rupee (NPR) = 100 Paisa
Major Exports carpets, clothing, leather goods, jute goods, grain, herbs, tea, coffee, steel, cement business Processing Outsourcing, Software, Information Technology, Furniture, Cardamoms, garments
Major Imports Petroleum Products, Gold, Machinery
Major Industries Tourism, garment, food and beverages, metal manufactures, herbs
Major Export Partners India 61.2%, United States 9.4% (2015)
Major Import Partners China 42.2%, Thailand 18.5%, Singapore 11%, Japan 4.8% (2015 est.)
Foreign Exchange Reserves $7, 946 Million (2015)
Inflation 10.01%
Population below Poverty Line 26%
Gini Coefficient 32.8 (moderately equal)
Competitiveness Rank 98th (out 0f 138)
Ease of Doing Business Rank 107h (out of 190)
Employment Rate 97% (2014, est.)
Unemployment Rate 3% (2014, est.)

Politics

nepal-preseident-bhandariBidhya Devi Bhandari (REUTERS/Navesh Chitrakar)

Type of Government Federal parliamentary republic
Head of State Bidhya Devi Bhandari (President)
Head of Government Pushpa Kamal Dahal (Prime Minister)
Legislating Body/Bodies Legislature Parliament of Nepal

Social Facts

nepaleseImage from https://trekroute.com

Time zone UTC +5:45
Human Development Index 0.548 (low, 145th out of 180)
Literacy Rate 64.7% (men, 75.6%; women, 55.1%)
% of people with internet access 17.58% (approx. 5,044,737)
Life Expectancy 69.2 years (Males: 67.7, Females: 70.8)
Drives on the Left
Calling code +977
ISO 3166 code NP
Internet TLD .np

Myanmar

myanmar


CPSC Membership

Partner Ministry/Organization Ministry of Education
Liaison Officer Dr. Si Thu Kyaw
Deputy Permanent Secretary
Ministry of Education
Building 21, Nay Pyi Taw, Union of Myanmar
Recent Programs Held in the Country 2015: In-Country Program on Strategic Planning of TVET Institutions. January 12-16, 2015.
2012: (1) Special In-Country Program on Champion Leaders Development Program for TVET Skills for Poverty Alleviation. March 18-22, 2012. (2) In-Country Program on Curriculum Development for Technical Education. October 1-5, 2012.
Ambassador H.E. Ye Myint Aung
Ambassador of the Republic of the Union of Myanmar
Address of Embassy/Consulate in Manila 8th Floor, Gervasia Corporate Centre
152, Amorsolo Street, Legaspi Village
Makati City, Metro Manila

Economy

GDP (billions) $68.277 billion (Nominal: 73rdt, 2015 est.)
GDP Per Capita $1,212 (nominal; 2015)
Currency Myanmar Kyat (MMK) = 100 pya
Major Exports natural gas, wood products, pulses, beans, fish, rice, clothing, jade and gems
Major Imports fabric, petroleum products, plastics, fertilizer, machinery, transport equipment, cement, construction materials, crude oil; food products
Major Industries agricultural processing; wood and wood products; copper, tin, tungsten, iron; cement, construction materials; pharmaceuticals; fertilizer; petroleum
Major Export Partners China 37.7%, Thailand 25.6%, India 7.7%, Japan 6.2% (2015 est.)
Major Import Partners China 42.2%, Thailand 18.5%, Singapore 11%, Japan 4.8% (2015 est.)
Foreign Exchange Reserves $8 Billion (2013)
Inflation 5.9%
Population below Poverty Line 26%
Ease of Doing Business Rank 170th (out of 190)
Employment Rate 63% (2016, est.)
Unemployment Rate 37% (2016, est.)

Politics

pres-kyawHtin Kyaw (http://www.vishwagujarat.com)

Type of Government Unitary parliamentary constitutional republic
Head of State Htin Kyaw (President)
Head of Government Aung San Suu Kyi (State Counsellor)
Legislating Body/Bodies Assembly of the Union (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw)
Lower House: House of Nationalities (Amyotha Hluttaw)
Upper House: House of Representatives (Pyithu Hluttaw)

Social Facts

myanmar-peopleImage from http://myanmartravel.indochinacharm.com

Time zone UTC +6:30
Human Development Index 0.536 (low, 148th out of 180)
Literacy Rate 93.1% (men, 95.2%; women, 91.2%)
% of people with internet access 21.80% (approx. 11,749,580)
Life Expectancy 66.6 years (Males: 64.6, Females: 68.5)
Drives on the Right
Calling code +95
ISO 3166 code MM
Internet TLD .mn
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